Etymological Dictionary of Tocharian B

Douglas Q. Adams

The second edition of A Dictionary of Tocharian B (published by Rodopi, Amsterdam/New York, NY, 2013) includes substantially all Tocharian B words found in regularly published texts, as well as all those of the London and Paris collections published digitally (digital publication of the Paris collection is still incomplete), and a substantial number of the Berlin collection published digitally. The number of entries is more than twenty per cent greater than in the first edition. The overall approach is decidedly philological. All words except proper names are provided with example contexts. Each word is given in all its various attested morphological forms, in its variant spellings, and discussed semantically, syntactically (where appropriate), and etymologically. New to the second edition is the assignment, where possible, of the examples of the word's use to their exact chronological period (Archaic, Early, Classical, Late/Colloquial). This dating provides the beginning of the study of the Tocharian B vocabulary on a historical basis.

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Author
Introduction
Abbreviations and symbols
English-Tocharian B reverse index
Bibliography
Douglas Q. Adams, PhD in Linguistics (1972), University of Chicago, is currently professor emeritus at the University of Idaho. His publications have been largely devoted to explorations of the lexicon and morphology of Proto-Indo-European and, particularly, of Tocharian. He was co-author with James P. Mallory of Queen’s University, Belfast, of The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World (2006).

A Dictionary of Tocharian B

Introduction

Purpose

In this second edition of A Dictionary of Tocharian B its purpose remains twofold. Firstly, it is a dictionary, in the ordinary sense, of Tocharian B (or, more properly, Kuchean, the language of Kucha and the Kuchean Kingdom), attested from the fourth through at least the ninth centuries of our era along the northern rim of the Tarim Basin, in the Turfan basin to the northeast, and with outlying finds on the southern rim of the Tarim basin and in Dunhuang in Gansu. Thus the dictionary’s entries have been glossed with enough detail, and provided with sufficient grammatical explanation and examples, that the user can employ it profitably in reading and interpreting actual Tocharian B texts. The dictionary attempts to treat fully the currently known Tocharian B vocabulary, including for instance all proper names and a host of rare technical terms borrowed from Buddhist (Hybrid) Sanskrit. Secondly, it is an etymological dictionary of the language and thus an aid to understanding the place of Tocharian within the Indo-European language family. Defining, translating, and etymologizing, particularly in a language as fragmentarily known as Tocharian B, are not exact sciences; readers are cautioned to take the question marks and “possibly’s,” etc., at full value and should, no doubt, add many of their own.

In the fifteen years since the publication of the first edition, those interested in Tocharian have witnessed a flourishing of Tocharian studies. Available to me now, but not in the nineties, are the full inclusion of words appearing in the Karmavācana and in Broomhead’s edition of the British Library texts. Revolutionizing the field are the re-edition of the British Library texts, published on-line by the International Dunhuang project, and the on-line publication of the Berlin collection as part of TITUS. These published pictures and texts have supplied the dictionary with a not inconsiderable group of new words and filled out the paradigms further of scores of words already in the first edition. Together with texts published more conventionally, particularly by Pinault from the Paris collection, these new sources have produced an increase of almost exactly 20% in the dictionary’s entries. An even grander revolution is under way in the form of the Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (CEToM) project just begun in Vienna which aims to make digitally accessible all Tocharian manuscripts, wherever their physical location may be. The first fruits thereof have been included here.

Among an increasing list of books and articles published on Tocharian topics (semantics, grammar, etymology), three major works must be singled out: Pinault’s Chrestomathie Tokharienne: Textes et Grammaire (2008), Peyrot’s Variation and Change in Tocharian B (2008), and Malzahn’s The Tocharian Verbal System (2010). Particularly the latter two are “game-changing” for Tocharianists. Peyrot, building on the earlier, and neglected, work of Stumpf, has demonstrated conclusively that Tocharian B has an internal history. We have texts dating from the fifth, perhaps even the fourth, century AD until at least the 9th century. Not surprisingly, the language shows significant linguistic develop-ment within that period. One result for the dictionary is that the examples in the various entries have been reordered so as to put the earliest attestation first and the later ones last. An incomplete search for earlier, or later, attestations has been made so as to show a certain sense of historical development, but more needs to be done in this area before we truly have a dictionary of Tocharian B “on historical principles.” Malzahn’s encyclopedic discussion of the Tocharian verb has informed every verb entry in the dictionary and made many of them better and more complete. In almost all cases where we originally differed, I have conformed the dictionary to her work. There are a few places where our under-standing of the facts differ, however (e.g., auk-), and there are a few (some fifteen) ‘late arrivals’ (e.g., kwänt-, śäp-, wey-), so the Tocharianist still has to read both works.

Other improvements have included the complete redoing of the definitions of botanical terms, both as to the provision of an English equivalent and the provision of a Linnaean name. In many instances there is more than one English name and/or more than one competing Linnaean name. Often I have given more than one competing Linnaean name where they occur. Obsolete Linnaean names are sometimes added parenthetically, preceded by “aka.” The reader should always keep in mind that botanical classification is never fixed but always evolving.

On the etymological side, scores of etymologies have been revised or reconsidered. I have been able to take into account the wonderful new series of Indo-European etymological dictionaries coming out of Leiden (the Slavic, Hittite, Iranian, Latin, Celtic, Greek, and Armenian ones having appeared and been incorporated into this work). The Carling, Pinault, Winter dictionary of Tocharian A has been fully taken into account, insofar as it has been published.

How to Read an Entry

Entries in this dictionary may consist of the following parts: (1) the lemma itself (in bold), (2) designation of word class (in parentheses), (3) gloss, [and, in a second paragraph] (4) morphological information, (5) textual examples and text references, (6) run-on entries, (7) special notes (preceded by the symbol ●), (8) etymological notes (preceded by the symbol ■), and (9) cross-references (►). Not all entries of course contain each of these parts: the shape of the lemma is dependent on the type of word in question; in the case of uninflected words for instance there will of course be no morphological information. All citations to the London and Berlin texts (save those published in Tocharische Sprachreste) have been updated so as to give and their current Berlin press marks (THT) and London press marks (IT, short for IOL Toch).

(1) Words in Tocharian B may be divided formally into two groups: those with inflection and those without. For the latter group, composed of prepositions, postpositions, adverbs, particles, most numbers, and a small number of adjectives, the shape of the lemma is a simple matter—it is the sole form of the word. Inflected words, nouns, verbs, and most adjectives, are, of course, a bit more complicated. Nouns and adjectives are normally given in their nominative singular form (nominative singular masculine in the case of adjectives). If the nominative singular (masculine) is not actually attested, its probable form is reconstructed and given with a following asterisk. Occasionally, when only the plural (less often the dual) is attested (and particularly when there is some likelihood that the noun in question is a plurale or duale tantum), the nominative plural (dual) is taken as the appropriate lemma. Verbs are given in their root form and thus end in a hyphen. (Occasionally other words are known only fragmentarily and they will also end in a hyphen.)

(2) The designation of the class of the word is fairly simple in the case of most parts of speech. For nouns and verbs it is more complex. For nouns an indication of gender is given where it is known (nouns may be masculine, feminine, or neuter—the latter being nouns with masculine concord in the singular and feminine concord in the plural). For verbs there is an indication of transitivity, transitive or intransitive (with the understanding that a transitive verb may always be made intransitive by passivization). Verbs that are marked as both are those with an underlying intransitive “Grundverb” and a derived transitive causative (which in turn may be passivized). The semantic subset to which a particular causative belongs (according to the analysis of Malzahn [2010]) is indicated by a superscript number.

(3) As suggested above, the gloss is intended to be relatively specific (and thus more likely to provoke correction). The gloss may also include on occasion particular set phrases or idioms of which the lemma forms a part. The numerous botanical terms (almost always from some medical formula, are supplied with the parenthetical notation, “a medical ingredient” or sometimes simply “MI”).

(4) For inflected words the attested inflected forms are given between square brackets. (The universe of attested forms is substantially complete for texts published in books and articles; it is not complete for texts published on-line by THT or IDP.) In the case of nouns attested forms are given in the order: nominative singular, genitive singular, accusative singular, nominative dual, genitive dual, accusative dual, nominative plural, genitive plural, accusative plural. The numbers, singular, dual, and plural, are separated by slashes. If a form is not attested, its place is taken by a hyphen. Thus for raso (n.[m.sg.]) ‘span’ we have “[raso, -, raso/rsoñc, -, -/rsonta, -, -]” indicating that in the singular both the nominative and accusative are attested but no genitive, while in the dual and plural only the nominatives are as yet found. For pat (nnt.) ‘stūpa’ we have “[pat, ptantse, pat//-, -, ptanma]” indicating that all three forms of the singular are attested but there are no dual forms and only the accusative plural is attested for that number. Where known, the vocative form is given, in paren-theses, after the corresponding accusative, thus for waṣamo (nm.) ‘friend’ we have “[waṣamo ~ wāṣmo, waṣamontse ~ wāṣmontse, waṣamoṃ (voc. waṣama)/ /waṣamoñ ~ wāṣmoñ, wāṣmoṃts, wāṣmoṃ].” This latter entry illustrates another possible complexity, the existence of alternative forms. Where alternative forms are known, they are given separated, as here, by a swung dash. The lack of an attested alternative, as in the genitive and accusative plural, of course does not mean that such did not exist. In this, and similar cases, the second (or only) alternative is one found exclusively in poetry. Underlyingly the noun is /wāṣä́mon-/ and appears always in prose, and presumably in speech, as [waṣámon-]; when metrically necessary the stress may shift, giving [wā́ṣmon-]. The inflected forms of the adjective are shown in exactly the same way, though they will have both masculine and feminine forms and thus the potential array of forms is doubled and each part preceded by a “m.” for masculine or an “f.” for feminine as needs be.

Verbs are of course more complex yet, but follow the same basic format, though the three divisions are the first, second, and third persons rather than nominative, genitive, and accusative. Thus for the present-stem forms of pär- ‘bear (away), carry (off); take up; wear’ we have “[A -, -, paräṃ//-, parcer, pareṃ; AImpf. //-, -, priyeṃ; nt-Part. preñca; m-Part premane; Ger. pralle]” indicating that in the present active (a combination which is unique in not being explicitly marked in the dictionary) the third person singular and the second and third persons plural, in the active imperfect the third person plural is known, while of the non-finite forms belonging to the present-stem we know both the nt- and m-participles as well as the gerund. (As an adjectival form the gerund is given in the masculine singular nominative; if the masculine singular nominative is not actually attested, it is reconstructed and given with a following asterisk.) Where securely known, the underlying place of the stress is also given for each paradigm. One should also note that in the case of verbs the inflected forms and examples are divided among the attested tenses and moods.

(5) The textual examples have been chosen to illustrate the various meanings of the word and to give some idea of the collocations into which it may enter. Unsystematically, examples have also been chosen to highlight a word’s presence in Archaic ([4th and] 5th centuries AD) or Early Tocharian B (6th century). To emphasize the time depth of the attestation of Tocharian B, all exemplifying texts have been “dated” where possible by the addition of Peyrot’s designation of linguistic periods. (Classical Tocharian B texts are attested from the beginning of the 7th century onward. To include, with greater regularity, attestations in Late or Colloquial Tocharian B [7th-9th centuries] is a desideratum of the next edition.) In poetic texts some attempt has been made to include verse punctuation (: and •) and verse numbering, which may be read as “here ends śloka/stanza such-and-such”), since those punctuation marks so often delimit syntactic units of some sort. The translations are designed to maximize the possibilities of one-to-one correspondence with the Tocharian B original, even at the sacrifice of elegance or even, at times, ordinary English word order. Words inserted for the sense in the English but which have no Tocharian B correspondent are placed in square brackets (except for articles and other “little words” which are added without comment). Particular care is taken to cite all the attested Buddhist (Hybrid) Sanskrit (B[H]S) equivalents of Tocharian B words, since so much of our knowledge of Tocharian B vocabulary comes from the fact that a majority of our Tocharian B texts are translations of B(H)S originals. (B[H]S is an admittedly unsatisfactory cover-term which takes in a wide variety of Sanskrit and somewhat Sanskritized Middle Indic used by Buddhists but no simple equivalent can be substituted. In most cases we have no idea the exact route by which a Sanskrit, Sanskritized Prakrit, Prakrit, or Pāli word has become a part of the Tocharian B vocabulary.) In the case of proper names and obvious loanwords there are usually no examples given as the meaning in the case of proper names is self-defining while in the case of the many Buddhist technical terms borrowed from B(H)S the meaning may be discovered to a much greater degree of detail by consulting dictionaries of (Buddhist Hybrid) Sanskrit than it could be inferred from the limited examples known to us in Tocharian B texts. However, even in the latter cases at least one reference to the word’s occurrence in a Tocharian B text is given.

(6) Given as run-on entries, or sub-lemmas, are regularly derived adjectives, abstract nouns, and those compounds which contain the main lemma as the first member. The run-on entries are preceded by a long hyphen (if the run-on entry is a derivative which is only attested as the second member of a compound, it is preceded by a long hyphen, a space, and then a single hyphen). Thus, appended to the main entry whose lemma is śaul (nnt.) ‘life,’ we find —śaulaṣṣe ‘prtng to life,’ —śaulanmaṣṣe ‘prtng to lives,’ —śaulassu ‘life-possessing,’ —śaula-preñca ‘life-bearing,’ —śaulu-wärñai ‘life-long,’ and —śaultsa warñai ‘id.’ Derived adjectives other than the productive ones in -ṣṣe, -ññe, -tste, -ssu, are normally given separate entries; thus ypiye (adj.) ‘prtng to barley’ is separate from yap (n.[m.sg.]) ‘barley.’

(7) Special notes (marked by a ●) are relatively rare. They are intended to draw the reader’s attention to difficulties of morphological or semantic analysis or may draw his or her attention to places where the analysis presented in this work differs from that of its predecessors or contemporaries.

(8) The etymological notes (preceded by ■) are intended to sketch the history of the etymological discussion concerning the lemma and to present what I think to be its most probable history. The history of the discussion is usually admirably taken up through 1976 by A. J. Van Windekens’ Le Tokharien confronté avec les autres langues indo-européennes, Vol. I: La phonétique et le vocabulaire. I have not found it necessary to repeat everything in this work, especially early speculations that are dead-ends in both Van Windekens’ opinion and mine. Nor have I given in full Van Windekens’ own conclusions when subsequent research has clearly made them impossible (such cases are noted by “otherwise VW”). I have contented myself with summarizing the major lines of thought through 1976 and giving relatively full coverage of the discussion since 1976. It is my hope that I have not missed anything of note in that time period. However, given the episodic nature of this work’s gestation and the relative isolation of my work environment makes it more or less certain that something that should be included has been missed. The absence of a citation in the etymological discussion should be taken as a lamentable omission, not an implicit rejection or denigration of the work overlooked. If the word is of inherited Indo-European origins, a sample (in square brackets) of Indo-European cognates is given with a reference to general Proto-Indo-European etymological works, Pokorny (1959) and, where applicable, Mallory and Adams (1997), but the cognates given are not to be considered the totality of related forms.

(9) Cross-references (either italicized and followed by “q.v.” in the text or in bold at the end of the entry and marked with an arrow (►) are intended to guide the reader to words certainly or probably related to the entry in question.

Alphabetic Order

The alphabetic use in this work is that customary in Tocharian studies and that used by Tocharian writers themselves (cf. Couvreur, 1965): a, ā, ä, i/ī, u/ū, r̥, e, ai, o, au, k, kh, g, gh, ṅ, c, ch, j, jh, ñ, ṭ, ṭh, ḍ, ḍh, ṇ, t, th, d, dh, n, p, ph, b, bh, m, y, r, l, ly, v, w, ś, ṣ, s, h, ts. The symbol is given its own alphabetical order when it precedes a sibilant (ś, ṣ, s) or h, but otherwise is taken as an allograph of n and alphabetized accordingly. (If, as rarely, it precedes a k or p, it is taken as an allograph of or m respectively.) The extremely rare is alphabetized as plain l.

Acknowledgments

I acknowledge with deep gratitude the financial and moral support, including the award of two sabbaticals that the University of Idaho and its Department of English have provided for this much longer-term project than anyone ever foresaw. For technical support and assistance at various stages in this project I am very much grateful to William Pyle, Wolfgang Schubert, Glenna Tibbetts, Kim Sarff, Arla Marousek, Cathy Myers, Keri Moore, Anna Thompson, David A. McArtor, James M. Reece, Alexander Lubotsky, Marijn van Putten, and particularly H. Allen Adams, Michael D. Adams, and Gordon Thomas. For review and comment, particularly on the etymologies in the first edition, I am indebted to Eric P. Hamp, Jörundur Hilmarsson, H. Craig Melchert, and John W. H. Penney. On-going conversations with Melanie Malzahn have informed, and improved, many entries in the second edition, as has an extensive written commentary compiled by Werner Winter before his death. Had I availed myself more often of their suggestions, no doubt the book would have been a better one. In any case, the faults of the work must be laid squarely at the feet of the author.

It remains to acknowledge with deep gratitude the patience and support of my wife, for whom the dictionary has been a constant almost the entirety of our married life, expanding repeatedly from office to dining room table, to living room and then back again, and of my sons who have known no life without the dictionary in the background and who themselves have contributed greatly to the solution of its formatting problems. And, finally, I owe a profound debt to my grandfather, Howard A. Adams, whose enthusiasm for language, and particularly the classical languages, turned out to be quite infectious and set off the train of events which has resulted in this work, and to Eric P. Hamp, whose own enthusiasm for, and apparently limitless knowledge of, all things Indo-European, has ultimately informed this undertaking at all levels.

All Saints’, 2012

A Dictionary of Tocharian B

ABBREVIATIONS and SYMBOLS

 

ATocharian A
A(in verbal paradigms) active
A(as part of locus number) Udānalāṃkara (Lévi, 1933, as corrected by Sieg, 1938)
acc.accusative
adj.adjective
adv.adverb
akaalso known as (mostly in references to obsolete Linnean botanical names)
AMBAmbarajātaka (Thomas, 1965)
apudcited from the works of
ArmArmenian
BTocharian B
B(H)SBuddhist Sanskrit, Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit (either Monier-Williams [1899] or Edgerton [1953])
BroomheadBroomhead’s edition of the London texts
CEToM(as a part of locus number) Comprehensive Edition of Tocharian Manuscripts (http:// .univie.ac.at/tocharian/)
cf.compare
col.column
DAM(as part of PK-DAM) monastic letter from the Pelliot collection (Pinault, 1984a)
Dd“Documents divers” (Pinault, 1987a)
du.dual
EdgertonEdgerton, Franklin, Buddhist Hybrid Dictionary and Grammar. 1953. New Haven, Yale University Press
f.feminine
fragmfragment (usually as part of a locus number)
FS“Fragments Stein” (in Filliozat, 1948)
G“Grundverb,” non-causative verb
gen.genitive
Ger.gerund
Glgloss
G-Qagraffiti from Qyzyl Qargha (Pinault, 1987a)
G-Qmgraffit from Qyzyl Sairam (Pinault, 1987a)
G-Qograffiti from Qumtura (Pinault, 1987a)
G-Sugraffiti from Subeshi (Pinault, 1987a)
H(as bibliographical citation) Hilmarsson (1996)
H(as part of locus number) Hoernle collection
IDPInternational Dunhuang Project
Ipv.imperative
Impf.imperfect
Inf.infinitive
ITIOL Toch = India Office Library, Tocharian [manuscripts]; International Dunhuang Project (http://idp.bl.uk/idp.a4d)
K(as part of a locus number) Karmavibhaṅga (Lévi, 1933, as corrected by Sieg, 1938)
K(as part of a verb paradigm) “Kausativ,” the derived, often transitive, sometimes derived transitive, of a Grundverb/Kausativ pair
Ka verb form quotable from Krause (1952) only
Ko.“Konjunktiv,” i.e. subjunctive (and future)
K-T word or form of word recorded, presumably from unpublished sources, in Krause and Thomas, 1964
KVācKarmavācana (Buddhist ordination ritual)
Ko. VbClass V subjunctive, but with preceding palatalization
legeshould be read as
LIVLexikon der indogermanischen Verben
LP“laissez passer” or caravan pass (Pinault [1986])
m.masculine
m-Part.participle in -māne, aka medio-passive participle
MMagic text (Filliozat [1948], as corrected by Sieg [1954])
MAMallory and Adams (1997)
MIa medical ingredient
MPmedio-passive
M-WMonier-Williams, Monier, Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 1889. Oxford, OUP.
n.noun (gender unknown)
nom.nominative
nt.neuter
nt-Part.participle in -ñca, aka active particple
nf.feminine noun
n.[f.pl.]noun whose gender in the plural is feminine and whose gender in the singular is unknown—it may be either a feminine noun or a neuter
n.[m.sg.]noun whose gender in the singular is masculine and whose gender in the plural is unknown—may be either a masculine or a neuter noun
nnt.neuter noun (taking masculine concord in the singular and feminine in the plural)
n.pl.noun only attested in the plural (but for which a singular presumably exists)
n.pl.tant.noun which occurs only in the plural
OCSOld Church Slavonic
OEOld English
OHGOld High German
Opt.optative
Otani(as part of a locus number) Otani collection (Japan)
P(in etymological discussions) Pokorny (1959)
P(as part of locus number) Pelliot fragments (Filliozat [1948], as corrected by Sieg [1954])
Part.participle
passim‘throughout’ (i.e., too many loci to conveniently list individually)
p.c.personal communication
Pe(as part of locus number) St. Petersburg collection
PIEProto-Indo-European
PK(as part of locus number) Pelliot Koutchéen (Paris collection); PK-AS = “ancient séries,” PK-NS = “nouvel séries”
pl.plural
PNproper name
prtngpertaining
Ps.Present
Ps. IIbClass II present in -i(ye)-, formally identical to Class IV subjunctives
PTchProto-Tocharian
PPpreterit participle
Pt.preterit
q(q).v.which see
RVRig Vedic Sanskrit
SUdānastotras (Thomas, 1966-67)
scil.to wit; namely
sg.singular
SHTSanskrithandschriften aus den Turfanfunden
SI P(as part of locus number) St. Petersburg collection
Skt.Sanskrit
STMS Stein (Filliozat [1948], as corrected by Sieg [1954])
s.v.sub voce
TchTocharian
TEB(as part of locus number) Tocharisches Elementarbuch (Krause and Thomas, 1964); the first number refers to the page, the second to the section number
THT(as part of locus number) Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin collection (TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien) (http://titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de/texte/tocharic/tht1.htm)
TVSTocharian Verbal System (Malzahn, 2009)
TXSanskrit-Tocharian B bilingual texts from the Berlin collection (Thomas, 1974)
UUdānavarga (Lévi, 1933, as corrected by Sieg, 1938)
vb.verb
vi.intransitive verb
vt.transitive verb
vi/vt.verb that is both intransitive and transitive (usually because the transitive half of the pair is a derived causative)
VWVan Windekens (1976)
WWeber-McCartney MS (Filliozat [1948], as corrected by Sieg [1954])
YYogaśataka (Filliozat [1948], as corrected by Sieg [1954])
˟new entry (nothing corresponding in first edition)
(˟)de facto new entry
probable TchB meaning posited on the basis of TchA evidence
(?)after a verb form, verb form given by an authority but without known attestation
[!]locus not found
A, E, Cetc., after a locus, indicate the periods of Tocharian B as defined by M. Peyrot (Note: A = Peyrot’s Archaic-I, E [i.e., ‘Early’] = his Archaic-II). Thus A = Archaic I, E = Archaic II, C = Classical, L = Late, Col = Colloquial, ? = not categorized by Peyrot
2, 3, 4After K indicates the kind of causative as defined by Malzahn (TVS:51-55); Kausativum I left unmarked
́indicates morphophonemic place of stress in verb paradigms (and occasionally elsewhere)
‘See’ (directing the reader to another entry)
Introduces etymological discussion
Introduces grammatical, syntactic, etc., comment
[ ]encloses restored aksharas; in translations shows words in English translation to meet norms of English but not matched by anything in the Tocharian text
{ }(1) surrounding a locus it indicates largely reconstructed form; (2) within a text it indicates a scribal correction/addition by the original scribe or a subsequent corrector
< >restoration of akshara(s) omitted by scribe
unreconstructible missing part of akshara
indicates morphological palatalization of preceding consonant

A Dictionary of Tocharian B

ENGLISH – TOCHARIAN B REVERSE INDEX

• A •
ācāryaaśari
abandonārsk-
abandonment prahāṃ, rilläññe
abdomenkātso, tso
abhidhārma, one learned in the abhidharmike
abidewäs-2, walāk-
abidingstamalñe
abilitycämpamñe, yātalñe, saṃjñä
ability, havingcämpamñetstse
ablecämpalle, cämpamñetstse, cämpamo, epastye
able to, being ablecämp-
abode of an asceticaśrām
abovekauc
above, (from)oṃṣmeṃ
abscess ampoño
absencemā-nesalñe
absence of passionmaimatsäññe
absence of worldly desires vairāgya
absence of worldly desires (?)vairāk
absent (prep.)parna
abstention (from sin) narkäṣṣälyñe
abundant ite
abundance itauñe, artkiye (?)
abuta (a plant)pāt
aśvamedha (major Hindu sacrifice)aśvameṭ
Acacia catechu khadīr
Acacia lebbek śiriṣ
Acacia lebbek, flower ofśiriṣapuṣpa
acceptwärp-
accessibleyalle
accessible tarkalle
accidental form of matterupādāyarūp
accompanied by a thiefsteyasahaṃ
accompaniment of a thiefsteyasahagamaṃ
accomplishlāṃs-
accomplishmentsātäṃ, yāmor
accumulatekraup-
accumulation, based onaupacayik
accusation, unjustifiedāmuladhvāṃsaṃ
accusecotit yām-, kuts-
achievekälp-, yäm-
achievementyänmālyñe
achievingkällālñe
Achyrantes aspera .apamārga, viśīr
acidāmpäl, mātre
acknowledge (?)ārtt-
Aconitum heterophyllumprativiṣ
Acorus calamus okaro (?), vaca
acquiretäl-
acquisitionpatti
acquisition, prtng to honoring oflābhasatkārṣṣe
actyām-
act forcefullyspālk-
actionyāmor
action (manifestation of) ṣotri
active krätaññe
actornāṭaktse, naṭe
actualyneśaññe
adaptationyukti
add totsu-
addictionupādāṃ
addition, in/on top of that (conj.)tusa
addition of one portion.bhākottär
adeptepastye
adheretreṅk-, tsu-
adherence eṅkäl
adjacentkälymiññe
adjust mälk-
adjustmentyukti
admonish (?)räs-
adornyät-
adultorotstse, śrāy (?)
adult men (?)śrāy
advanceecce spārtt-
advantagepärkāu
advantageous pärkāwṣe
adversarycodake
adversary and temptermār
advocateweñmo/weñamo
Aegle marmelos kakoṭak, pilamātti
afarlau
affairwäntare
affection, show yärs-
afflictkärn-
afflictedkleśatstse, kliṣṭ
afflictedmänts-
afflictionkleś, tsetsekor
affluent ekaññetstse
afraid, bepärsk-
afresh nano
after ompostäṃ
afterwardsompostäṃ, postäṃ, entwe
againnänok, nano, wasto, wästār
again (?)wato
again and againnäno-näno
againstwrantsai
against the grainvilom
Agathotes chiratakiratikta
Age (n.)kālp
age (vb.)kwär-
agedauśiye, pärwetstse
agitatewālts-
Aglaia roxburghianapriyaṅku
Agnean (?)akeññe
agreeplāk-
agreeablecäñcare, plākissu
agreeable to, beārtt-
agreementplāki, plāksar, samai
agreement with, make an (?) käryakār yām-
aidpānto, upacai
aided by, be ekītatstse nes-
ail alāsk-
airakāśe, iprer
akṣara, taking hold of the akṣarālaṃbaṃ
albugo (disease of eye)puṣ
alcohol, alcoholic beverage . .mot
alight, be setsälp-
alkali from ashes of green barleyyawakṣār
allpo
all aroundyeksnar
all-knowing, i.e. the Buddha poyśeñca, poyśi
allegory of the border of garmenttūṣadr̥ṣtānt
allot truk-
allowkälm-, tärk-1
all togetherpo ysomo/po eṣe
almondwatām
almspintwāt, yāṣṣu
alms-bowlpātro
alms-giver tanāpate
aloe (?)okaro, agaru
aloneṣeske, ṣesketstse
aloudenkaucar
alreadyka
alsośka, ra, ra-tsa, rano
alternately (?) ṣñār ṣñār
althoughno
altogether solme, ysamo, ysomo, aiksnar
alwaysṣek
amasskraup-
amassingkraupalñe
ambush, one lying in (?)platäṃkamo
amongeneṅka, epiṅkte, y(n)-
among (the) godsyñakteṃ
among menyśāmna
Amorphophaullus campanulatum mahiṣa
amuseker(y)-
amusementnārm
andśale, wai, ṣpä
and also ṣpak
and so/also taisa
Andropogon muricatus, root ofuśir
Andropogon, species of (?)payä
Anethum sowa .śatapuṣpa
aneweñwetstse, nano
anger amarṣ, erkattäññe, tremi, māntalñe
anger, quick toerkatteśañ
angrytreme(ṃ)ṣṣe, erkatte
angry, be krās-, mänt-
angry (as medical term)erkatse
anguishkleś
animalśtwerpew, luwo
animal, a kind of (?)śari
animal/birdluwo
animal hairaṣitañ
ankle (?)porsno
announceāks-1, klāw-, kärs-, täp-
announcementsśaṃtsna
announces, one whoākṣi
anointsanāp-
anointinglaupalñe
anotherallek
answerwrantsai wesk-
antwarme
antelope, blackaineye
Anthropogon schaenantus sugant
anticipated thing (?) . .cittakālyät
antimony, preparation of āñcanarasa
anxietyīwate, sklok
anyksa/kca, ṣe ra ksa
apartwaiptār, waipte, wetke
apart, betsär-
apart from N-sa parna
apartment on top of the housekwrakar
apparentapākärtse
apparent, bepākri nes-
appearceleññ-, nān-, tep-
appearance ere, saṃsthānarūp, weṣ, wyāk(t)
appeasement śānti
appetite, lack ofaruci
applaudanumodit yām-
application raitwe
apply (?)rink-, kwäsk-
appointed gathering, having a (?)kāryasaṃnipātstsaññe
appointmentsaṅket
appreciatedynāñm
appreciationynāñmäññe
apprehensionanubhāp
appropriateayāto
appropriate, be ārtt-
approve ārttalñe täl- [K], anumodit yām-
aptitudeepastyaññe
arbiterprāśnike
arduous waimene
argue (?)mäll-
arhatarahānte, arhānte, aṣanīke
arise pärk-2, plätk-, säl-1, tsäṅk-1, (?)plutk-
arjunaarjuṃ-stām
arka-planterk1
armpoko
arm-span keṣe
armyretke
arrange (jewels/armor on the body) (?)mälk-
arrangementsamai
arrivalykuwer, āpadāṃ (?)
arroganceamāṃ, śarwarñe
arrogantśarware
arrowāstär, prere, tsain
arrows (?)tsaräkkañ
arsenic, yellowgairik
artamok
Artemisia vulgarisnāgapaträ
arteries and veins marmanma
artificeamok
artificialnermite
artisanamokätstse, s•ltre (?)
Arum campanulatummahiṣa
arum lilymahiṣa
asente, mäkte, ram(t) /rām(tä)
as ifram(t) /rām(tä), ram-no
as it wereram(t) /rām(tä)
as long askos
as manykot
as muchkot
as much askos
as oneysamo, ysomo
ascendräṅk-
ascetic (n.)tikṣne, jaṭiläññe
ascetic (adj.) etsarkälletstse, pilycalñetstse
ascetic dwelling in the forestarāññe
ascetic rule of lifedhutaguṇä
ashamed, bekwipe-ññ-
ashestaur, tweye
ashramaśrām
aside, setlauke tā-
ask (for)pärk-1
asparagusśatāwari
Asparagus racemosusśatāwari
aspire 2yu-
aspiring to speltkessu
asskercapo, khare
assembleaiksnar mäsk-
assembledsamanit
assemblysārri, wertsiya, saṃnipāt
assent toārtt-
assign truk-
assistance ekitatsñe
assumptioneṅkalñe
Asteracantha longifoliaaruṇariju
asterism through which moon passesnäkṣātär
astonishedwismai
astonishing ākteke
astray, gotrik-
astray, lead trik-
asylum niśrai, waste
atis (a plant)prativiṣ
atmosphereeprer, akāśe
atomparamānu, paramāṃ
attach oneselftsu-
attached, beritt-
attachment, worldlytreṅkäl, treṅke
attachment eṅkäl
attack tän-
attain yäm-
attempt (n.)sarrīwenta
attempt (vb.)skai-
attendant (?)viṣe
attending closely tokrätanīke
attention, to paykeś āk-, aiśai yām-
attentive snai-ykorñetstse, koylle (?)
attentivelyanaiśai
attestation satyakār
attractivetakarṣkäññetstse
attributevaiśaṣike
augmentklutk-
auspicioussākre
authorizedārttau
avaricemaute
aversionykāṃṣälñe, ykāṃṣe
aversion to the world mrauskalñe
avertlitk-, kut- (?)
aviditymaute
Avīcī-hellapiś
avoidwik-
awakeningāksalñe
awareimassu
awarenessīme
awareness or memory, application ofsmr̥tyutpasthāṃ
awareness-chaptersmr̥tivārg-
awayā-, lauke, past, at, ate, wetke
away from (?)nocot
axperet
axleṣem
Azadirachta indicapicumaṇḍa
  
• B •
backaṣkār, päst
back, on one’saṣkār
back (of the body)sark
back and forthorkäntai
badyolo, ainake
bad characterduśśīlñe
bad character, havingduśśīle
bad dispositionamiśkäññe
bad-temperedamiśke
baelkakoṭak
baitśwāl
balconykucatāk, skāk
Baliospermum montanumdanti
Baliospermum montanum, seed ofdantiphal
ballkrepaste
bandageśwele
banishlut-
bank (of a body of water) petwe
bank (of a river)manarko
bankrupt person (??)weretemaṣṣe
bannerwaipe
banyannigrot, vaiśramañña
barberryśkwaśko, keleyak
bark enmetre
barleyyap
barley (meal) (?)klese
base keṃ, dhātu
base (-born)ainake
based onmilkautstse
baseness ainakñe
basisālambaṃ, ścmoñña, niśrai, ṣarm, sāle, dhātu
batarśakärśa
Batatas paniculatabiḍāri, kṣirabiḍāri
bathanuwasāṃ, (?)laiko, -ṣāwo (?)
bath-roomsnānaśāl
bathenāsk-1
bathing-housesnānaśāl
batterpyāk-
battleweta
bazaarorpoṅk
bdelliumkurkal
bemäsk-1, nes-
beacon-firepūwar
beam, (sun)swāñco
beanmāśak
bean, mothmutkavarṇi
bean, a kind ofmāṣikāni
bean, a kind of (?)dhanyamāṣ
bearkäl-1
bearable tallenta
bear (away)pär-
beat (of a drum)pyāk-
beat (of a heart)särp-
beautifulersnāssu
beautifulkartse, pälkaññetstse
beautify yät-
beautyersna
becausekuce, mäkte
because of thattemeñ
becomeklautk-, klutk-, mäsk-1, nes-
bedleke, leki, mañcāk
bed(-roll)prastrāṃ
beekro(ṅ)kśe
beef-oksaiññe
beertanā-mot
beerwäsok
befool mem-
beforeenepre
begyāsk-
beg pärk-1
begettäm-
beggaryaṣṣuca
begging aloudśauśalñe
begging-bowlpātro
beginaun-
beginningauñento
beginning withwarñai
beginning, having a .yparwetstse
behave indifferently .ārtte tärk-
behaved morally, one who has notapāṣṣätte
behavior-pāṣṣe
behaviorcarit
behaviorklautke
behaviorspārttalyñe
behavior (?)spertte
behavior, moralpapāṣṣorñe
behavior, moralśīl
behavior, mode of physical. .iryāpath
beholdläk-
being (?)saṃvr̥tti
being tatākar
being, livingonolme
beliefśraddhauññe
belieftakarṣkäññe
believerśrāddhe
believingśrāddhe takarṣke, takarṣkäññetste
bellkul
bellykātso, tso (?)
belonging to the (present) agebhadrakalpike
belongings ekaññe
beloved (n./adj.)lāre, lareṣṣe, ṣarya täṅkwassu
belowñor
bend (toward)räm-, näm-
bending (?)nmalñe
beneathñor
benedictionāśirvāt
benefactorkärtse-yami, tanāpate
beneficial krätaññe (?), pärkāwṣe
benefitayāto, pärkāu
benevolencemaitär
benzoinśaileyak
berate (?)tsok-, tärs-
Berberis asiaticakeleyak
besetting sinnivāräṃ
besmirchlup-, märk-
best śpālmeṃ
best of, get the auki nes-
bestow kälp-
better of, get the auki nes-
betweenepiṅkte, ywārśka
beverage of grain.piṣitakamantha
bewail one’s fatepälw-
bickering (n.)śalna
bickering (adj.)śalnāu
bigorotstse
bile, prtng topittaṣṣe
bile-bloodraktapit
bimonthlyywarca-meñ
bindkärk-2
bind (something) (up/together)śänm-
bind (something) onśänm-
binding karkäṣṣälyñe, truskäñña
bird[see animal]
bird spseri
bird spṣparā-yäkre
bird sp.yāmuttsi
bird sp (a dove?)skren
birthcamel, jāti
birth-cyclesantāṃ
birth/act of being born .cmelñe
birth-formcamel
bit by bityke-postäṃ
bit by bit (going).tott-ike-postäṃ
bitpeṅke, kāpar
bitekāpar
bite (of a snake)tsāk-2
bitter, make (?)räsk-
bitumenśaileyak
blackerkent-, kwele
black gramturani
black pigment or collyrium. .añcāṃ
blame (vb.)nāk-
blame (n.)nākälñe, nāki
blamelessanākätte, snai-nāki
blaze upsälp-
blazingsälpamo, salpi, slemeṣṣe
bleary, be märk-
blemish nāki
blessedsākre
blindtärrek
blind (of the eye)aip-
blind persontärrek
blindedeś-lmau
blindnessorkamñe, orkamotstsäññe
blindness, partialtīmīr
blinkptsak
blinkingptsak
blissmaṅkāl
blissfulsākre
blisterweru, pittāk
bloatstaukk-
block of wood intsau
blockedtaṅki
bloodyasar
blood, shed yasar lut-
blood-sheddingyasar-lyucalyñe
blood vessels auloñ
bloodyysārtstse
bloom (of flowers)wāk-
blossom (in general)tuñe
blow (a musical instrument)pi-
blow (possibly ‘introduce’)pin-
bluetseṃ
blue lotusuppāl
blue lotus, prtng totsen-uppālṣṣe
blushsälp-
boastṣañ-āñm päll-
boatkolmo, olyi
boatmanolyitau
bodhisattvabodhisātve
bodhi-treepodhi-stām
bodily kektseñaṣṣe
bodily remainsśarīr
bodykektseñe
boilpäk-1
boil (n.)pilkwer, yoro, ampoño
bolt āstär
bondśanmau, truskäñña
boneāyo
bookpostak, krānt
book of (demonic) beingsbhūtantär
book (sacred)śāstär
borage, Indianpāṣāṇabhid
bordersälyiye
bordertotteññe, 2ārtar, uwaṃt
borderingkälymiññe, akeñe
born (successively) to several familieskulaṃkule
born, to betäm-
bosomcaṅke
bothantapi
bottompatsa
bottomlesssnai-ptsa
boudoirśokagār
bough (of a tree)āntse
boundpruk-
bound (of the heart)pruk-
boundarysim
boundlesssnai-totteññetstse
bovinekaiyye
bow down (?)kuk-2
bow (as a sign of honor)räm-
bow rmamñe
bow(-string)wäntalyi
bowel disease, a kind of (dry excrement)udāvartt
boyśamaśke, kālyśke
boy, littlesäsuwerśke
Brahmā’s word; the sacred text bra(h)m-wek
Brahmā-heavenbrahmalok
Brahmā-voicebrahmaswar
brahmanbrāhmaṇe
brahman, littlebrāhmaṇiśke
brahman-woman brahmaṇāñca, brahmaṇi
braid (vb.)wāp-
braid (n.)jaṭ, ? kusar
braid, formerly having a jaṭilapūrvake
braid, having a mäṣkwatstse, jaṭiläññe
brainpankaccāp
branchkarāk
brandyśakuse
brave tsirauññetstse
bravery tsirauñe
bread kanti
bread, a kind ofśro-kanti
breadth aurtsäññe
breakkaut-, nitt-
breakable kautātstste
breakingkautalñe
breastcaṅke, pratsāko
breast (woman's)piśpik
breastspäścane
breatheanāsk-
breathinganāṣṣälñe
breeding animalśantālya
bred, to be (adj.)śantālya
brick iścem
briefly aultsorsa
brigandyoñiyai-ṣpärkäṣṣuki
bright läkutsetstse, lak(u)tse, pälkaññetstse
brillianceläkutsauñe
brilliance (?)lyuśilñe, lukṣo
brilliant läkutsetstse, lak(u)tse, lyukemo lyakwaññe, nautse
bringās-2, käl-2
bring forther-
bring/send (??)2plāk-
broadaurtstse
broom(-stick) (?)peṅke
brothsmaññe, yot, maiki, ṣwīye
brotherprocer
brothers, related as omprotärtstse
browspärwāne*
bubbleweru
buddhapañäkte, pūdñäkte
buddha who reserves enlightenmentpratikapañäkte, pratyaikapañäktäññe pratyaikapudñäkte
Buddha’s origin, prtng to buddhotpatäṣṣe
Buddha’s voice, containing thebuddhavacaṃ
Buddhist beggar (?)āhrīkyanavatrāpyä
Buddhist deities, a class ofparanirmitavaśavarti
Buddhist deities, class ofparinirmitavaśawarti
Buddhist literature, a type ofupadeś
Buddhist monks, member of a group ofṣaḍvargi
Buddhist vestments, wearing (?)traicīvarīkäññe
Buddhist works, collection ofpiṭak
budgewāsk-/wäsk-
buildtsik-
bulb of a small variety of the Nymphea kirot
bull .kaurṣe, sārme
burdencalle, perpette, talle
burnpälk-3, sälp-, tsärk-
burn uptsäk-
burningpälśalñe, tskelñe
burstwāk-
business negotiationkaryor
butno
Butea frondosakiṃśuk
Butea frondosa, prtng to palāśäṣṣe
Butea monospermakiṃśuk
butterkewiye
butter, clarifiedpeṣke
‘buttterfly’ document (?)yauyek
buykäry-
buyingkaryor, kärnālñe
  
• C •
Caesalpina sappan .pattaṅk
cakra, possessing acakkartse
cakra, sign of the .cākkär-lakṣāṃ
.cākkär-ṣotri
cakra, wheel as mystical symbolcākkär
Calamus rotang, fruit ofniculaphal
calculationgaṇit, ṣaṃṣäl
calf (of leg)ckācko
calf (young cow)paitar
call outśauk-
call out tokwā-
call uper-
called, beklāw-, we-
calling to mind an oblation (?)yāgānusmr̥ti
calm (adj.)snai-rmamo, sänmetste
calm (vb.)tsārw-
calmnessāñu
caltrop (a plant)klyoto
calumny abhyākhyāṃ, waṣe-reki
calves (of the leg)tskertkane
camel (?)koro
camel, prtng to (?) partāktaññe
camels, file of (?)muśnāśi
camp wṣeñña, śaiyāsaṃ
can cämp-
canalnewiya, ārtte (?)
cancerkarkar
candyṣaḍap
caninekuñiye
capabilityśakti
capable-yātalñetstse, cämpalle cämpamo, epastye
capable of, beyāt-
caravan-leadersārthavāhe
caraway, commonajamot
carbuncle (?)pilkwer
cardamonsukṣmel
Cardiospermum halicacabum jyotiṣpati
caresenik, snauki
care of, put under thesenik kälp-
care of, take särk-
carefree empalkaitte, snai-meṃtsi
carefulsnai-ykorñetstse
carefullyanaiśai
carefulnesssnai-ykorñe
careless about, beyäk-
carelessly enersaṅk
carpentertarkāntsa, ost-yāmṣeñca
Carpopogon pruriensräṣabhakä
carry (off)pär-
carry täl-
carry a burdentalle täl-
cartkokale, kokalyiśke
carterkokaletstse
case-formvibhakti
cash, string ofmeskeṣṣi cāni
cashew, orientaltecapati
Cassia esculenta, flower of kanakapuṣpä
Cassia fistula .rājavärkṣä
cassia plant, bark of varangatvacä
cast in a moldkutk-
castoffkutsāre
cast outwik-
castor-oil planthirant, irand
castor-oil plant, prtng. to eraṇḍaṣṣe
catmārjāre
cataract (of the eye)surme
catch sight ofläk-
catechumenvaineye
category padārth, ṣaṃsäl
cattail, narrowleaf (?)śar
cauldronaise
cause (n.)ṣarm
cause and effectṣarm oko
cause (vb.) er-
cause to goiyā-
causing painupatāpi
cautious imassu
cave troṅk
cave (as residence of monk)gu
cavitytroṅk
ceaseār-
celeryajamot
celestial ñäkciye
celestial beings, a class oftuṣit
celestial musiciankinnare
cell, monasticleṃ
cemeteryerkau
cemeteries, one who frequents śmaśānike
centerkele
Centratherum anthelminticum ksumarāś
certainly auspa, nemce(k), ṣñike(k), taka
certainly not mā ... nta
cessationāralñe
chaffpīsäl
chain meske, śerk(w)
chairpir
challenge (?)krāt-
chameleonparre
chancellorpurohite
changeklutk-
change one’s mind pratiṃmeṃ klautk-
changelessness, prtng to-ṣekaññeṣṣe
chance sak(w)
chantcchando
chapter-vārg, sargga
character, trueṣañäññe
characteristiclakṣāṃ, nmit, ṣañ
characteristic of a conditionavasthālakṣaṃ
characterizetskäññ-
chariotkokale
charioteerkokaletstse
charmingcäñcare
chase (vb.)mäk-
chase (n.)werke
chase (away)wik- [K]
chay rootmañcaṣta
cheapolaṅk
checkkrämp-, tänk-, pät- (?)
cheekwicūko
cheer uptsārw-
cheeseṣarwiye
cheetah (?)yerkwantalo
chestcaṅke
chewtresk-, tsālt-
chickenkraṅko
chicken, levantine (?)payasya
child (esp. in plural)śamaśke
chir pine (?)vräka
cholerawīcuṣik, viṣucikänta (pl.) iweru
chop uptāks-
chop up/downkaut-
chop (something) finekärst-
chorus, sing inysomo we-
Chrysopogon zizanioides uśir, nalat
circlemaṇḍāl, serke, wrene (wrete?)
circlet serke
circuitparyāṃ, kaunär
Cissampelos pareirapāt
citizen, ordinaryypoye
citronmātulunk
cityrīye
city-dweller.riññe
city-similenagaropam
clamber pätt-
clankottär
claritytakarṣkäññe
classprakār
clay, prtng tokwraiññe
clean (adj.)astare
clean (vb.)li-
cleanse oneselfli-
clearpākri
cleartakarṣke
clear, bepākri nes-
clearsnai-märkär, snai-märkartstse
clear, become pärk-2
clearlyanaiśai
clefttsrorye, leṅke
Clerodendrum indicum bhārk
Clerodendrum phlomoidestilāk
clever maimantstse, yulyke (??), aiśamo
climbränk-, pätt-
clingtreṅk-, tsu-
clingingtreṅkäl, treṅke, upādāṃ
clinging to existencetr̥ṣṇopādāṃ
cloakkampāl
cloistersaṅkrām
close (door, gate)2putk-
close (?)wipe
closeysape
close the eyesmik-
closelyspe
close to ispek
closureprautke
clothes/clothingwastsi
clothingwästsitse
clothing of ragspāṃsukūl
cloudtarkär
cloudburstpraściye
cloudiness (?)tärkarñe
clownviduṣäke
clubśakāto
cluster figudumbara
coarsetrekte, aśāwe
Cocculus cordifoliajīvanti
cockleburmahāmet
coheretsu-
coin and a measure of weightkuśāne
coldkrośce, krostañaṣṣe
cold(ness)kroścaññe, krostaññe
Coleus aromaticuspāṣāṇabhit
collapsenitt-
collapsingnitmo
collectivelyysomo
collyriumsauvirājan
collyrium in pastekälkañc
coloryok1
color (of complexion)ere
-colored -yokäññe
comb (?)seriñ
comb, rooster’sṣim(?)
comb (vb.) (?)2päk-
combination raitwe
comekäm-
come downkārp-
come to an endār-
come togetheraiksnar mäsk-
come to pass (of a wish)kän-
come up (of celestial bodies)pärk-2
comfort (vb.)tsārw-, 1tär- (?)
comfort (n.)tsārwäṣṣälyñe
comingśmalñe
command (n.)reki, wätkāṣṣälyñe
command (vb.)wätk-
commandertāś
commander-of-the-centerywārt-taś
commandmentśāsaṃ, yaitkor
commendpäl-
commendationpālalñe
commentary, prtng tovibhankäṣṣe
commentatorṭikkakāre
commerce karyor
Commiphora roxburghii (?)akaru
commissioner, vicehwuṣṣi
commityām-
commit (sin, deed)kätk-1
commit (sin/crime)traṅko kälp-, traṅko kätk-, traṅko tsäṅk-
common, inaṅkāmnitstse
commonainake, kärpiye, kärpye-yakne
communitymiṣṣi, sāṅk
compact, become (?)stu-
companionaulāre, sahāye, ompostäṃ ynūca, plataṃ-kama (?)
companionability, prtng to (?) aulārñeṣṣe
companionship of a woman during travel strisahagamaṃ
companywertsiya, eṣe śmalyñe
company, keep [company] withlāre yām-
comparable (?)menākätstse
comparable manner, in a tesa warñāi ce-ra-tsa
comparerām-
compared with N-mpa tasemane
comparisonmenāk
compassionkaruṃ, añmālaṣlñe
compassion for, have täṅkwaññ-
compassion, great and generalmahākaruṃ
compassionatekaruṇīke, aräñcatstse
complain (to)pälw-
complaint pälwālñe, pepälywor
completepo
complete(ly) solme, attsaik, snai-lyipär
comportmentspārttalyñe
compresstsatsāpar
concealwāl-
conceitśāmpa, śarwarñe
conceited, beśāmp-
concentrationsamādhi, atkwal (?)
conception (false)wāsaṃ
conception of thought (?) cittābhisaṃskār
concernsenik, snauki ersäṅk, ersaṅkäññe, sklok
concerned to, bekurp-
concerned with, bekurp-, särk-
concerningispek
concerningompostäṃ, āśrai
concludeeṅk-, stā-
concupiscenceykāssälñe, ykāssäññe
condemnnāk-
condense wälts-
conditionavasth, wṣeñña
conditioned states (of being)skeye
conduct tarkāñe
conduct oneselfspārtt-
conduct, having indifferent ārtte tarkañetstse
conduct-sūtranette-sūtär
confess wināsk-
confess (sins)teśit yām-, deśaṃ ai-
confessionteśit, deśaṃ
confidencepäkwalñe
confidence (?)späntālñe
confidence, induce spänt-
confidentspäntāläññetstse
confidentlyspantai
confineprutk-
confined, beprutk-
confinementprutkālñe
conflict, ineweta
conformation, mental saṃskār
confuse (the mind)käsk-
confuse trik-
confused, betrik-
confusiontraike, trikalyñe
congeal (?)stu-
conjecture vitark
conjunction of epithets adhivacanasaṃsparś
connect ritt-
connectedritt-
conqueryuk-
conquestyūkalñe
conscience, without (?)senik-śawa
consciousnessīme
consciousness of pleasure, touch of the .sukhavedanīyasparś
consent wärp-
consequenceompostäṃ-wṣīlñe, oko
consequentlytemeñ, temeñce, twār
considerkeś tā-, pälsk-
consideration vicār, ompostäṃ-palkalyñe
consolationtsārwäṣṣälyñe
consoletsārw-
constant ṣekaññe
consumeśu-/ś(ā)wā-
consume by firetsäk-
contact takälñe
contact of sense organs with objectssparśakāy
containtsu-
contained, be wlāw-
contemplation ompalskoññe
contemplative ompalskoññeṣṣe
continuallyṣek
continuationstamalñe
continuitysantāṃ
contradictorvipratyanīke
contraryvilom
contributor tanāpate
control (vb.)wlāw-, yāt-
control (n.)wlāwalñe, wawlāwar
controlledsañāt
conventtsāro
conversation, inaplāc
conversionpratiṃ
convertedvaineye
converted by relics, one to bedhātuvaineye
convincespänt-
convincinglyspantai
convokedsamanit
convoy (?)yāywyeṃ
cookpäk-1, särk-
cookingpkelñe
cooking potaise
copperpilke
copyistlekhāke
cordśerkw, oppīloñ (?)
corporealkāyike, rūpi, kektseñaṣṣe
corral wepe
correct expressionśapt
costpīto, wyai
costus (?)kaṣṣu, kuṣṭa
Costus speciosus (?)kaṣṣu, kuṣṭa
cottonkampās
cotton clothkenek
couchmañcāk
coughkosi
councilwertsiya
countkeś yām-
count (as) ṣäṃs-
countenance särwāna
count-palatineyapko
countlesssnai-keś
countryyapoy
country, of akeñiye
country, prtng to a (certain)-ypoyṣe
country, prtng to (one’s own)ypoye
country, living in the akañcar-weṣeññai
courageousaräñcatstse
couranttseñe
courseyoñiya
course of difficult tasks, prtng toduṣkaracāräṣṣe
coveraip-, wāl-, wänt-
covered up, be wäm-
covering raktsi, wālalñe, aiporñe, wente
cowkeu, okso
cowhageātmagupti, räṣapak
cow-herder’s wifegovika
cow-treekṣirakākoṭi
crack in ground/wall tsrorye
crafty (??)yulyke
crape jasmine (?)takaru
craving añmassu
cream (upper part) (?)śar
create ritt-
creation saṃskār
creatureonolme
credibleperāk
creeper śkwarya, laitke, wāli
cremation groundsśmaśānike
crestedtsänkarwaṣṣe
crevice koto, lyauto
criminalyolo-yamortstse
crop (?)ṣito
cross (?)2tär-, lut-
crossing (of a stream)kätkālñe
crosswise, something putpkante
crowdhvaje, skren
crowdprutk-
crown flowerārk
crown of the headtarne
crown prince ? asānṣṣe mcuṣke
crude scire
crushkaut-, mäll-, mely-, nitt-, tsāp-, wālts-, mlutk-2
crushingmāllalñe
crutchṣpikiye
cry (n.) (?)auso
cry outnu-, ausw-
cry for help (?)ausw-
crystalspharir
crystallinesvārirṣṣe
cub, animalsäsuwiśke
cuckookokīl
cuirass (?)samākane
culpable nakṣalle
cultivate (plants)sār(y)-
cuminayājñi
cunning (??)yulyke
cupcf. karute-ṣirye
Curcuma longa.haridär
Curcuma, a kind of (?)turya
curingpkelñe
curlwäl-
curseśāp
curvewäl-
cuss-cuss grassuśir
cuss-grassnalat
customyakne
cut downkärst-
cut offkärst-, lātk-, prutk-
cutting offkärstālyñe
cutting weaponyepe
cycleserke
Cyperus rotundusmust, parivelak
  
• D •
dailykomt
dairy (??)mañi
Dalbergia sissookaruṇasāri, śāñcapo
dam pät-
damage (n.)karep, miyäṣṣälñe
damage (vb.)mil-
damage, suffermilar kälp-
dance (vb.)tsip-
dance (n.)tsaipe
dangerñyātse, proskiye, sanu
dangerous ñyatseṣṣe, ñyatsassu, proskaitstse
danglelänk-
dangle (intr.)suk-
darbha-grassask(w)ace
darkorkamotstse, orkmo, erkent-
dark greykwele
dark phase of the moon .erkent-pākṣe
darken wärs-2
darknessorkamñe, orkmo, ñakre (?)
daughtertkācer
daykauṃ
day and a night, [for] a .kaun-yaṣi
day and nightkaun-yaṣi
day, byiṅkauṃ
day, during theiṅkauṃ
day, this verykomtak
daybreak, attsoṅkaik
dawn (vb.)luk- yṣiye
dearlāre, laraṣke, lare-yok, lareṣṣe tänkwassu
dear onelarekke, lāre
dearlykwāts (or kwats?)
deathjarāmaraṃ, srukalle, srukalñe srukelle, srukor
debtperi
debts, pay peri lutäsk-
decay (?)kärtk-
deceit tserekwa
deceitful tserekwatstste
deceive tsereññ-, 2mi-
deceptionkuhākäññe, tārśi
deceptionstserekwa, tsärtsäkwa (?)
deceptivetārśītstse, tserekwatstse
decidewätk-
decide topalsko näm-
decisionpratim
decisivelywätkāl
declarationweweñor, prajñapti
decoctionkaṣāy, niryuhaṃ
decorateyät-, wämp- (?)
decorationyetwe
decreaseparihāni
decrepitylāre
deedkārm, yāmor, yamalläññe
deem worthy ynāñm yām-
deepkätkare
deep meaning, ofkätkr-ārth
deeplyenkätkre
deerkarse
defecate (?)kärtk-
deferential, beyärs-
defective meṅkitstse
defective senses, of meṅk=indrinta
defective vision, of meṅki-pilko
deficiencyparihāni, meṅkitsñe
deficient meṅkitstse
deficitmeṅki
defilelup-
defile oneself (?)kärtk-
defile oneself (?) tin-
deign to ārc-
delaynerke
delete mänt-
delightmodit, plānto, yāso
delightfulcäñcare
delightful thingecce ritau
delimited (?)parinermita
delineate pik-
deliriousyoṅkomane
deliver (?)suk-
deliverancemokṣ
deliverance, way of anantaryavimuktimārg
deludeyānk-
delusiontraike, tsätkwantsñe
demandñäsk-
demand (something of someone)rit-
demonasūre
demon (malevolent)rākṣatse
demon, female (malevolent)rakṣatsa
demon, a kind ofkaṭapūtane, kaṭapūtanäñña, pūtane
demoniacal possession . graheṃ
demons, member of a particular class ofkumbhāṃṇḍe
denarius (gold monetary unit)tinār
dentitionkeme
denymäll-
deodardevadāru
departlait-
departurelalñe, ykuwer
dependent on ekalymi
deposit (?)nocot
depressnusk-, si-n-, āś pyāk-
depressed, besi-n-
depressionsilñe, kukäṣṣälyñe (?)
deprivationmäṅkorñe
deprivation vyavaropaṃ
deprivesāmp-
deprived of, bemänk-
depthkätkarñe
descendkārp-
descent kārpalñe
desert (n.)pälkiye
desert (vb.)ri-n-
deserveārc-
design (?)sarrīwenta
desirablenesstänkwäññaññe
desire (vb.)añmaññ-, kāp-, kulyp-
desire (n.)kāwalyñe, kāwo, kulypelñe āñme1, mañu, ñyās, tr̥ṣṇ, yokiye
desire, fiercerätkwre-eṅkäl
desire, state of existence of tr̥ṣṇabhavānk
desirousañmassu, kawātstse, ñyasassu
desistmauk-, tärk-1, wän- (?)
Desmodium gangeticum
aśamati, sālaparṇi
despairsi-n-, ru-3 (?), sklokaññ-
despicable (?)appamatiśśa
despondencysilñe, amiśkäññe
despondentamiśke
detail, in aurtsesa
destiny (?)kan, k•nmaṣñe
destitute snai-cek-wärñatstse, snaitstse
destroykau-, mänt-, näk-, spärk-, naut-
destroy utterlykärst-
destroyed (?)keto
destroyed, benäk-, naut-
destroyer-nakṣi, näkṣeñca
destroying-nakṣi
destroyingnäkṣeñca
destructionnautalñe, nkelñe, nenkor
destruction, utterkärstor
determine (rules) ś(c)ämn-
Devadatta, prtng to school ofdevadattapakṣe
developplätk-, ecce spārt-
deviatelait-
devoted servicekrtitāṃ
devoted tokrätanīke
devourśu-/ś(ā)wā-
devoutkärtse-ṣälype
dew, prtng towriyeṣṣe
diademmahūr, mukur
diagonallyakṣnai
diamondwājrä, waśīr
diamond seatwajrasaṃ
diesruk-, mante i-
differencewāki
difference of opinion tsrorye
differentwätkāltstse
differentiationwaiptārtstsäññe
differentlyāläṃ
difficultamāsko, waimene, waimenetstse, amāskaitstse
difficult taskduṣkär
difficult to traverse maskwatstse
difficultykramartsäññe, māskw
difficulty, withamāskai
digrāp-
digestionpkelñe, pūwar
digestion, absence ofacirne
dignity kare, perne, käre-perne
diligent(-)ykorñetstse, koylle (?)
dill pissau
diminish (?)spāw-
din newe
directśä-, rāk-
direct (someone)rit-
directed in a single directionalokälymi
directed to(wards)aiwolätstse aittanka, wräntsaitse
directed towards, beaiw-
directed towards a single object somo-kälymi
directionkälymiye, ekalymiññe ekalymiññetsäññe
directlytswaiññe, snay-emprukṣai
directoranuśāsake, prāśnike, yotkolau
directorshipyotkolatñe
dirtkrāke, kariṣ, 2ñatke
dirtykraketstse, sal, eñatketstse
dirty, betin-, krāk-
disagreeableeñcare
disappearmusk-, näk-, naut-, spärk-
disappear intowäm-
disappear, decrease andwik-
disappear, cause tospärk-
disappear, makemusk-
disappearance kselñe, nautalñe, spärkālñe
disappearing, notaikatte
disapprove kärr-
disassociated, bepätk-
disassociationpätkārñe
disavowmäll-
disburseparra spāw-
disc yerpe
discoursewelñe
discipleśaikṣe, akalṣalle
discipline spārtto, saṃvar
discontent amarṣ
discordysalye
discreet imassu
disdainmäll-
disdainfulappamatiśśa
diseaseteki, tekiññe
disease, complicated .saṃnipātik
disease, skinkuṣṭh
disengage oneselfmlutk-1
disgust, showykāṃṣaññ-
disheveled, be wäl-
disintegrate spärk-
desirousritau
dispatchedmakamo
dispersetäṃts-
disperserṣparkäṣṣuki
displeasureerkattäññe, erkattäññetstse
disposition adhyāśai
dispute (?)mäl-2
dispute moli(ye), śalna
dissipatemusk-
dissolutionṣparkäṣṣälñe
distant akañc, akañcar
distinctiontsrorye, wāki vaiśaṣike, wakītsñe
distinctivewakītstse, wakissu
distinguishwätk-
distinguished ṣotarye, wakītstse, wakissu
distinguished manśreṣṭhi
distractedallek-pälsko
distractionwyakṣep
distress āś pyāk-, kleś, ñyātse, lakle
distributer (?)cayane
disturbkrämp-, mänt-
disturbance krämpālñe
disturbed, bekrämp-,kau-
ditchtsrerme
ditch, irrigationmurye
divideputk-
divided (in mind)ywārc
divineñäkciye, ñäkteññe
division (of a book)sargga
division (of a science)āṅk
division of versepatāk
doyām-
doctorsaṃtkīnau
doctrinal enäṣṣälñeṣṣe
doctrine āgam, kārik, enäṣṣälñe
documentpapaikar
doeryāmätstse, yāmṣeñca, -yāmi
dogku
doing ill (to someone) (?)elyeñcai
dollsoye
domain yoñiya
dome (?)pāre
dominion (?)tant
done on atit
donkeykercapo, khare
donor at a ceremony honoring deceased relativeśraddhatāk
doortwere
door-keeper plaktukäñña
doubledwasto, wästār
doublywasto, wästār
doubtklänk-, sklok, klankälyñe
doubtfulklänkarṣke, sklokatstse
doubtful, besklokaññ-
doubtingsklokatstse
dove, prtng to ekṣinekäññe
downette, ñor, sorromp
downcast eyes/face, withette särwāna
downstreamñoru-wär
drachma (unit of weight) trākäm
drag along (with violence). .yärtt-
dragonnāk(e)
drain1si-, tälp-
dramtrākäm
dramanāṭak
draw (of horses pulling a wagon)āk-
dreadempelñe
dressed in, bewäs-1
dressingśwele
drink (vb.)yok-
drink (n.)yokasto, yoktsi
drink, give to2auk-
drinkeryokänta
drinkingwkanmo
drip pält-
driveāk-, kälts-
drive (away/off)wik-
drive outlut-
drop (n.)pältakw
drop (vb.)säl-3, sum-
dropsywar-katsa, iweru (?)
drumkerū, paṭak
drumstick treekwrarāk
drunkenness (?)mālatsa
dryasāre
dry excrement (a disease)udāvart
dry outās-1
dry, run (?)spāw-
dry upās-1
duke yapko
dull (of senses)yuṣe, mālle
dull-wittedyäkte-aiśamñetse
dullness of sensesyuṣauññe
dungmelte, weṃts
dung, prtng to (?) .kekärtkorṣṣe
durationstamalñe
dustāre, spaitu, taur, tweye
dutyaikne
dwellwäs-2, walāk-
dwellingṣim, wṣiye
dwelling, rude (??)ep
dwelling placeoskiye, wṣeñña, ep (?)
  
• E •
each artsa
each otherālyauce
each to his own ṣñār
eager ārwer, spelkkessu
ear klautso
earlier nauṣ, pärweṣṣe, parwe
earring klautsaiñe
ears attent, with klau(t)sa-pilṣi
ears of grain (?)traksiñ
earth keṃ, bhūmi, iṣcake
earth, looseāre
earth-injuring bhūmyupaghātaṃ
earthen iścemaṣṣṣe
earthly kenätstse
eastkauṃ-pirko, kauṃ-pirkoṣṣa
easyolaṅk, laṅkutse
eat (at)śu-/ś(ā)wā-
eat, those eager to śawośañ
eaten, not having eśuwatte
eatingśawāñca
ecstasy/trance, stage of āyataṃ
edge aśakula
effect (vb.)yām-
effectively (?) snāñcau
effortskeye, pradhāṃ (?) lalyiye, spelkke, lāṃs
eight okt
eight parts, having oktatstse
eight thousandokt-yaltse
eighteenśak-okt
eightfold oktäññe
eighthoktante
eighties, byoktankar
eights, byoktār
eightyoktamka
elder tsaṣke, moko
elder [a monastic official] . .stere
electuary klyauccasi
element āntse
element dhātu, bhūmi
element of practical knowledgevijñānabhavānk
elementary substanceavyākr̥t
elephantgaje, oṅkolmo
eleven śak-ṣe
eleventh month, prtng towärsaññe
eliminatelitk-
eloquent kärtse-weśeññai kärtse-weṣṣeñca
elsewhere*ynallek
emancipation of the soul, finalwimokṣ
embarrass antarāy yām-
embarrassment antarāy
Embelia ribes, fruit of viḍangä
Emblica officinalisamalāk
embody kutk-
embrace yäks-
embrocate sanāp-
embrocation sanāpalle
emergelänt-
emergence lalñe
emittärk-1
employmentprayok
emptied, be tälp-
emptiness aikaräññe
empty (adj.)aikare
empty (vb.) (a container)mutk-
empty place śunyāṃ
empty space akāśe
empty space, element of akāśadhātu
enable (?) kälm-
enabled, be yāt-
enclose wāl-
encourage ṣärtt-, tsārw-, utsahām yām-
encouragement (?) ṣārtto, ṣarttaṣṣiññe
end āke, 1āre (?)
end, at the akessu
end, come to an/be at anpäst nes-
end, ultimatesparkālye āke
endeavorsarrīwenta
endowed withN-sa arwāre
endurance kälṣamñe
endurekäl-1
enduringkälṣamo
enemy sāṃ
energetic spelkkessu, tsirauñeṣṣe
energytsirauñe, warkṣäl
engendertäm-
engenderertanmäṣuki
enjoy wärp-, pläkk- (?)
enjoyingwarpamo
enjoyment paribhog warplane, winālñe
enjoyment, perfectkāmagun
enlighten luk-
enlightenment, element of.bodhyānk
enlightenment, prtng tobodhapakṣik
enmityśconiye, sanuññe
enougholank
entangleyäks-
entanglementkrānt
enter yäp-
entiresnai-lyipär
entirelypo-yknesa
entrustsenik kälpäsk-
entry(way)yenme
enumeration ṣaṃṣäl
envelopewänt-
envious entseṣṣe, entsesse, entsesñeṣṣe
envyentse
eon kālp
epilepsy apasmār
epoch ekṣalye
equally (?)ankanmi
equanimitymaimatsäññe
equipment pariṣkār, ekaññe
erroneous tsatku
erroneous (?) tsätkwantse
erroneously tsätkwaṃ
error nāki, triśalñe tsätkwantsñe, trikṣo
error/delusion, prtng toviparyāsäṣṣe
eruption, skinkāswo, platkāre
eruption of pustulespraśśānkaṃ
Ervatamia coronariatakaru
erysipelasvaisarp
escapemlutk-1
eschewwik-
essenceñem, sār
essential part (?)pradhāṃ
establish ś(c)änm-, käly-, pyutk-
established by fruition of deeds vipākak
establishment stamāṣṣälñe, pyutkaṣṣälñe
esteem ynāñm yām-, ārtt-
et cetera warñai
eternal onuwaññe, ṣekatsäññe, śāśvat
eternal(ly)ṣekaññe
etherakāśe
eulogy (?)stāp
eunuchkañcuki
evacuationkwaräṣ(e)
evaluated ynāñm
evaporatespärk-
eventänktsi
even (adv.)ykāk, spek (?)
even (adj.) (?)wipe, ṣmare
even more ololyesa
even now ykāk
even though rano
evening, in thepaintsa
event (?) gat
eventually postaññe, ṣekaññe
everlasting śāśvat
every po
every way, in poyknesa
everythingpo
everywherekälymi-kälymi, po kälymintsa, kälymiṃ
evidentpākri
evilkaṣṭa, mäntarṣke, pakwāre yolaiññe, yolo
evil onemār, pakwāre
evil-rumorneṣamye
evil-smelling päp, päpä-were
evil-mindedmamanto-pälsko
evil-mindednessmantālo
eviscerate troṅk trus-
evoke er-
evolutionecce spārttalñe
eweāu
exact distinction paricchet
exaltation, prtng to (?)murtaṣṣe
example menāk, dräṣṭāntā
excellenceśpālmäññe pruccamñe (?), wakītsñe
excellence, sign oflakṣāṃ
excellent śpālmeṃ, śpālu, śpalmeṃtse maimantstse, pruccamo (?) wakītstse, prākarṣik
excellent (of water) aṣṭāṅgopet
exceptparna
exception atirek
exception of, with the päst śceścamormeṃ
excess aise
excessive rätkware
exchangemäsk-2
exchangingmisko*
excite sexually yäs-
excitementyāso
excrement weṃṣiye, weṃts
excuseṣewi, leśamāträr
executioner’s block lastānk
exercise (magical) control over adhiṣṭhit yām-
exert oneself lāl-
exerting (?)-ñäṣṣe
exertionlaliye, skeye, wratstsoñña
exhalationsatāṣlñe
exhalesatāsk-
exhalingsatāṣlñe
exhaust (?) 2kuk-
exhilarateparāk-
exist nes-
existence nesalñe, sattä, tatākar
existence of formlessness . .ārūpyadhātu
existence, element of bhavānk
existence, form ofsärwece
existence, state ofbhap
exitlalñe
expansively emparkre
expectpäkw-
expectation päkwalñe
expellut-
expense wyai
experience epastyaññe, tikṣṇauñe
experienced epastye
expert in (monastic) disciplinewinasāre
expert in (monastic) disciplinewinayadhare
explainvyākhyāṃ yām-
explain toṣärp-
explanation parkāsaṃ, vyākhyāṃ
explanation/commentaryvibhāṣ
exposed, bepāk-
expositionvyākhyāṃ
expressionvyañjaṃ
extend (over) räk-
extent, to that totsa warñai
extent yarm
externalpärnāññe
extinctionkselñe
extinction, come tokäs-
extinguishkäs-
extinguished, bekäs-
extinguishing kekesor
extirpation wikṣälñe
extract niryuhaṃ, tsarātre
extraordinary alokälymi, kwärkwäññe
extreme prāntakoṭi
extremelyauṣaine
extremities, bodily pokaine
exuberantairṣaitstse
exude wlāsk-
eye ek
eyelash (?) pittsau
eyes, darkness of the tīmīr
  
• F •
facerup, särwāna
Fagonica creticataram
failkwäl-
faint trik-
faintingmurc, pit-maiwalñe
fairtakarṣkaññetstse
faithśraddhauññe, perākäññe prasāt, takarṣkäññe
faithful perāk, takarṣkäññetstse, takarṣke
fallklāy-
fall down/offlit-
fall into misfortunemänt-
fallingklāyalñe
falling/moving awaylaitalñe
falseaṅkaiṃ, tsätkwantse
false doctrinemithyadr̥ṣṭi
false or groundless accusationabhyākhyāṃ
falseness tsätkwantsñe
fameklāwi, ñem-kälywe, pālalñe
familygottär, kottär
family relationship, prtng tocmelṣe
farlau
far (of height)kätkare
far (off) (e)lauke
far, sotot
farmerkārṣake
fashionnermit yām-, tsik-
fastanahār
fastingposat
fattapre
fatherāppo, pācer
father (dear)appakke
fathomkeṣe
fattinessṣmarñe
faucesṣankw
faultnāki
favoritetӓṅkwaññe
fearproskiye, parskalñe, parskalyiye, proskaitsñe
fear, feelpärsk-
fearlesssnai-proskaitstse
fearsome proskaitstse
feathersparwa
feeble yäkt-āñm, ylāre
feebleness/thinness (?) . .yäkt-āñm
feelykāṃṣaññ-
feel an aversion to the worldmrausk-
feel with the handtäk-
feelingeṅkäl, vedaṃ, warpalñe
feignyakne yām-
felloeyerter
fellowaulāre
femaleklaiññe
female lay-discipleupāsakāñca
female organstrīndri
female sagerṣakāñca
fence (?)lyake
fenugreekwetene, sprik
Ferula foetidaankwaṣ
fervor spelkke
festival, kind ofoktaśke
festival-gathering, Buddhist pañcwarṣik
fetchās-2, täk-
fetterśanmau, yāntär
fetterskerketstse
feverkapille, sälpalle tskalñe, aumiye
fever, without aajvare
fewtotka
fickleslakkare
fickleness anityāt
Ficus bengalensisnigrot
Ficus indicusvaiśramañña
Ficus racemosasupratiṣṭhit, udumbara
fieldmīṣe, keta, ṣito (?)
fifteenśak-piś
fifthpiṅkte
fifthpañcama
fiftypiśāka
fifties, bypiśākar
fight (vb.)wät-
fight (n.)śalna
filekānts-
filament (of the lotus)kesār
filament (?)pittsau
fillite yām-
fill upprutk-
filled, be (to overflowing) . .prutk-
filth (e.g., semen)krāke
filth tetinor, akappi
filthykraketstse
finalakessu
final endmäktauñe
finally akek, laukar, postäṃ, postanmeṃ
findkälp-
find oneselfmäsk-1, spārtt-
find pleasure inswār-
finelykaśke
fine (monetary penalty)ailye-sem
fingerprāri
firepūwar
firebrand antāpce, parśiye
fireflykhadyot
firmkwäntsaññe, kwants, prākre, ṣlyaṣṣe (?)
firm prakrauñetstse
firm, youthfully malyak(k)e
firmamenteprer
firmly (?)ptako
firmnessprakrauñe, wratstsoñña
first (adj.)pärweṣṣe
first (adv.)yparwe, nauṣameṃ
first, from the pärweṣṣemeṃ
fishlaks
fish-emblazonedmīnadhvaje
fissure (?)knerwanta
fistmaśce
fistula of anus or vulva .bhagaṇḍāla
fitepastye
fitting (?)arkiye
fitting, what is (?)2ārk
five piś
fivefoldpiś-yäkne(sa)
fix (in place)käly-
fixedprākre
fixed courseniyam
fixedlyśāśwat
fix firmly prāk-
fixitypopok
fixity of purposeepretäññe
flaccidylāre
Flacourtia jangomastālis
flag waipe
flamesleme
flamingslemeṣṣe
flame of the forestpalāś
flatlyāk
flatterpaut-
flatteringpautarṣke
flatterypauto, peti
flaytsänk-2
fleabane, purplesumarāś
fleeting(ly)pälyca-pälyc
fleshmīsa
flesh, (raw)āmiṣ
flexiblemällarṣke
flexibilitymällarṣkäññe
floatplus-
floodkerekauna, lāñe, āp
flouryäkṣiye
flow (together)resk-
flow out, lettälp-
flowerpyāpyo
flower, prtng to apuṣpaṣṣe
flower, a kind of (?)tuñe
flower, prtng to a species of mäsakäṣṣe
flowering plant, a kind of . .morośk
flowingtsnamo
fluctuatingsnai-śmalñe
fly (vb.)plus-, 3säl-
fly (n.)tanaulyko
fly upplu-
fly, letplu-
flyingṣlyamo, salamo
foamleśp
fodderśintso
-fold-yakne
follicleklokaśce
followkalāk-
followerṣañ-śaumo, sahāye
follower of the Vibhāṣā (?)mahāvaibhāṣike
following postanmeṃ
following behind, immediately
ike-postäṃ
foodāhār, śwātsi, śwāl (?)
food obtained by beggingyāṣṣu
food, provided with śwatsitstse
foodstuff (?)naiṣṣi
foodstuff, a kind ofelya-
foodstuff, a kind ofkakwār
foodstuff, a kind ofkontac(e)
foodstuff, a kind ofklese
foodstuff, a kind ofyakso
foodstuff, a kind of ynaiktentāñe
foodstuff, a kind ofsteṃ
foodstuff, a kind of śeme
foodstuff, a kind of (?)wākte
foodstuff, a kind of (fat?)op
foodstuff, containing some plyeṅkwātstse
foolaknātsa, trikau
foolishaknātsa
footpaiyye
foot, animal’s (?)kolyi
foot (as unit of measure)cak
footbells, adorned withnipūrtse
-footed-pew
footprintṣiko
footstoolwi-paine-wṣeñña
forkatu
force tsirauñe
forcefulwätkāltstse, tsirauñeṣṣe
foreheadānte
foreignaletstse, alyek-ypoyṣṣe kälymiññe (?)
foreignness alletsñe
foreman yotkolau
foremost nauṣameṃ
foremost law agradharma
forestwartto
forfeiture (of a monk’s rights) n(a)isargi
forgetmärs-
forgivenesskṣānti, kṣantiññe
form (n.)erepate, ersna, rup saṃsthānarūp, tsātsaikar
form (vb.)nermit yām-, wrāt-
form, world ofrūpadhātu
formernauṣ
former existence . pūrvakālāntarābhaw, pūrvayok
forsakeār-, or-
forth aittäṃ
forthwith ṣeme kāparsa
fortunate, beskwaññ-
fortunateskwassu
fortune and joy, indication of (?)sukhasaumanasyendri
fortune, (good)sakw
fortune-tellerpälkaucäkka
forty śtwārka
forwardsyauṣmauṣ
fosteragetsukälle
foulpäp
foundationścmoñña
foundation (of a building)ränkāñi
four śtwer
four-footed śtwer-pew
fourfoldśtwarā-yakne, śtwarātse
fours, by śtwerār
fourteenśak-śtwer
fourthśtarte
frail ylāre
free from influence of upadhinirupadhiśeṣ
free of sufferingvitarāg
free [from]tsälp-
free [of], betsälp-
free of snai
freedom from sinful influencesanāsrap
freedom (from)tsälpālñe
frictionkāntalñe
friendwaṣamo
friendlinessyṣuwar
friendlyyṣuwar
friendly fashion, in ayṣwarka
friendshipmaitär, waṣamñe
fright wiyo (?), wiyälyñe
frighten wi-, pärsk-
fringe ñare
from whereveralanmeṃ
from whomeveralanmeṃ
front (of an army)ānte
frostbite (?) arkwiññe krośśaññe
frothleśp
fruitoko, kariśke (?)
fruit, an oil-bearing (?)paṣkārro
fruit, ripetaiwe
fruition (of action), coming tovipāk
fulfilllāṃs-
fulfill (a wish)kän-
fulfillmentknelñe
fullīte, ṣlyaṣṣe, taṅki
full-moonmeñe-pällent, pälleu
fullness itauñe
fullyaurtstsesa, taṅki
functionyamalläññe, spertte
fur aṣitañ
furthermoreyaka
futureekamätte
  
• G •
gainkallau, källālñe
gallpit
game kāñme
Gangeskank
Ganges-sand, likegangavāluk
gapekāy-
Garcinia xanthochymus tamāl
Garcinia xanthochymus, leaf oftamālapaträ
garden werpiśke, werwiye, wīnāmāññe
garden of variegated flowers . vicitrapuṣp-werpiśke
gardenerwerpiśkatstse
gardener, monastic head pañcwarike
garlandcarke, pässäkw, warke
garland of lampsdipamāl
garmentwastsi, yesti
garment (monk’s overgarment) uttarāsāṅkä
garment (upper)aṃśūk
garment, inner/under antarvās
garment, edge ofkepec(e)
gate?kāy
gate (city)yenme
gate-keeperyenmeu
gatherkār-, kraup-
gather up pär-
gatheringkraupalñe, saṃnipāt
Gautama Buddha, prtng togautamñe
Gautama, related to (?)gautamī
gaze lkālläññe
gazelleyal
gazelle, young ylaṃśke
general (?)tsyāṅkune
generousrilynetstse
genitals exposedapākśai
genitals hiddenkośagat
gentian, Indiankiratikta
gentle lalaṃṣke
gesturelek, pikār
getkälp-
get away frompruk-
get dressed (in)wäs-1
gheepeṣke
ghostprete, yākṣe
giddinesswaipalau
giftāyor, ailñe
gift-givingailñe
gift-perfectiondānapāramit
gingertvānkaro
ginger, crepe (?)kaṣṣu, kuṣṭa
ginseng, Indianaśvakānt
girdle (?)kleṅkaryo
girlśamñāṃśka
girltkācer
girl, youngmāṇavi
giveai-, truk-
give approbation toanumodit yām-
give off wlāsk-
give pleasure toplānt-
give substance tokutk-
give to drinkyok-
give upār-, ārsk-, ri-n-, tärk-1
givingāyor
givingaiṣṣeñcaññe
giving uprilyñetstse
giving, form of unrecognizedavijñaptirūp
glad, beparāk-, plānt-
gladdenparāk-, plānt-, kātk-
gladness/cheerfulness, causingsaumanasye
glancepilko
gleamruk-1
gloom orkamñe
gloomy orkamo
gloriousperneu
Glorious Mendicant mahāśramañe
gloryperne, pernerñe
glow sälp-, 1tsāk-
glowingsälpamo
Glycyrrhiza glabramatuk, matuyaṣṭi
Gmelina arborea, fruit ofkaśmaryaphal
goi-, iyā-, mäs-, mit-
go beyondlut-, ṣärk-
go outkäs-, länt-
goadkälts-2
goal or direction, having a single somo-kälymi
goatśaiyye, ās
goat, prtng to aaṣiye
godñakte
god-likeñäkte-yok
god of lovekāmñäkte
goddessñäkteñña
gods, a class ofnirmāṇarati
gods, a class oftilādevi
gods, one of the (?)sahadeve
going (n.)mitalñe
going (adj.)ynūca
going outlalñe
going, prtng toykweṣṣe
goitrepiśtär
goldyasa
goldenkañcāṃ-ysāṣṣe, ysā-yok ysāññe, ysañiye
golden shower treerājavärkṣä
goodkärtseṣṣe, kartse
good (interjection)bho-bho
good deedyarpo
good fortunemankāl
good omenmankāl
good willmaitär
good workkärtsauñe
good works, the way of .karmapath
good reputation, having ñem-kälywetstse
goodnesskärtsauñe
gooseberry, Indianamalāk(ā)
gossipkäskor
governancenay
gracioustakarṣkäññetstse, takarṣke
graciousnesstakarṣkäññe
grain śātre, tāno, tanākko, ysāre, proksa
grain, ear of (?)āk2
grain, with thepratilom
grain-alcoholtanā-mot
gram, blackturani
grammarvyākaraṃ
grandfatherāwe, orotstse-pācer
grantkälp-
graspingupādāṃ
grasping at existenceenkalñe
grassatiyo
grass-moweratiyai-kärstauca
grasshopperśalāp
grave mattermahārtte
grave offencesthulāñca, duṣṭhul
gravelyare
graveyarderkau
greasinessṣmarñe
greasyṣmare
greatorotstse, trekte
great elementmahābhūt
great or noble essencemahāsatve
great-heartedeprete, aräñcatstse
great-seermaharṣi
greedentse, entsesñe
greedyentseṣṣe, entsesse, entsesñeṣṣe
greenmotartstse
green grammāśak
greetecce ñäsk-
grief mentsi, lakle
grief-roomśokagār
grindwallts-
grind up (?)tāks-
gripenk-
groin yoñiye
groin-object (?)kakse
gross aśāwe
groundālambaṃ, keṃ, ṣarm, sāle
ground-down .mālle
gound, on theykeṃ
group .kraupe, -aiwenta
grove (religious)tapovaṃ-wartto
grove of treeswarśiye
growauk-
grow lean (with hunger) ruk-2
grow upauks-
grow (in size or number) .tsäm-
growingtsmotstse
growth tsamo1, tsmālñe, tsmoññe, vr̥ddhi
guardpāsk-
guardianshipparihār
guess vitark
guestlaukito
guidanceṣärpalñe
guide (vb.)ṣärp-, āk-
guide (n.)ṣarpṣūkiññe, sārathi
guide (female)ṣarpsemaneñña
guilt peri
guiltless snai-nāki
guilty träṅkossu
guiseweṣ
gush (?)kus-
gutters wrantse stmānma
Gymnema aurantiacummet
Gymnena balsanicumkākoṭi
Gymnena lactiferumkṣirakākoṭi
  
• H •
habityakne
hack up kärk-4
hairyok2
hair of headmatsi
hair, matted matsi tswau
hair, circles of white, prtng tourṇaṣṣe
hair, human body/pubic .to
hair, animal aṣitañ
halfywārc, ywārtsa
halfa-grassask(w)ace
-hall-māṇṇe
handṣar
hand over suk-
hand, palm of the alyiye
handleaiśai yām-, yām-
handsomeersnāssu
hanglänk-
hang downsuk-
hanginglänkamo
happeningwäntare
happinesssakw, yṣwarkaññe
happysākre, skwassu
happy, beskwaññ-
hardścīre, prākre
harepaṣe
hare-speck (very small unit of measure)śaśaraji
haremantiṣpūr
harem-woman antiṣpurṣṣa
harmkarep, miyäṣṣälñe
harm (grievously) mi-
harmed keto
harmful milarṣe
harmlesssnai-miyäṣṣälñetstse
harmonioussamāgrä
harness truskäñña
harshrukṣ
harsh (of words)ścīre
harvest ñemek, kariśke (?)
haterser, wer
hatefulrsertstse, werasse
hatredwer
haughtinessśāmpa
haughtyśarware
haughty, beśāmp-
have motionwāsk-/wäsk-
having angererkattäññetstse
having many feetmakā-pew
hesu
headāśce
head, top ofmrāce
headache (?)pärsare
head-dressmahūr
head-hairmatsi
heal rätk-
healthmankāl
healthykuśal
healthy/disease-freenirjvare
hearklyaus-
hearingklyauṣalñe
heartarañce
hearthśoliye
heatemalle, emalya
heat (vb.)tsärk-, tsäk-
heatingupatāpi
heaveniprer
heaven, vault ofānte iprentse
heavenly ñäkciye
heavenly beinggandharve
heavinesskrāmär, kramartsäññe
heaviness of heartmāntsalñe
heed of, take1pälk-
heart [as seat of wisdom] pastäṃ (s.v. paśce)
heartwoodsār
heavykramartstse
heel (?)kuke
heels (?)sprāne
heedlessness empälkattäññe
he-goatāl
heighttäprauñe
heirśawāñc-ailñe
hellnrai, patäl, pattāl (?)
Helleborus niger kaṭukarohiṇi
hellobho-bho
help (n.)ekito, ersaṅkñe, pānto, upacai
help (vb.)upacai yām-
helperekītatstse
helpfulekītatstse
helpfulness ekītatsñe
helplesslyenersaṅk
hem kepec(e)
hem inwāl-
Hemidesmus indicusśārip
herdkraup-
heretane, tene
here, in this placeomte
hereby tanneṃ
hereineneṃ
hereineneṅka
heresymithyadr̥ṣṭi
hereticbāhye, tīrthe
heretic, one outsidepärnāññe
heretical tsätkwantse
heretical monknigranthe
hermitagearaṇyāyataṃ
heroetre
heroicetrauññe
hesitantenerke
hesitating enerke
hesitationnerke
hidden, betuk-
hide (n.)ewe
hide (vb.)tuk-
highkauc, tapre
high groundpetwe
high number (?)apramaṇi
high, onkaucaṣṣe
highlightkauc pälk-
highlighted, be2pälk-
highlyauṣaine
highwaymanyoñiyai-ṣpärkäṣṣuki
hillṣale
hill, prtng toṣlyiye
hina planthribera
hinder täṅk-
hindering (adj.)pkänte-yami
hindrancepkante, wyakṣep
hindrance (to religious life) walāntsa, nivāräṃ
hipoñi
hiscwiññe
hit kärn-
hit glancinglyālp-
hitchedritt-
hitherecce
hither (directional adverb) [?]śka
hitting kekkarnor
hoarse (?)srankantse
hogsuwo
hogweedwärścik, eśpeṣṣe
Holarrhena antidysentericavatsak
hold back prām-
holelyauto
hole in the groundkoto
holinessviśuddhi
hollow (n.)troṅk
hollow (adj.)troṅktse
hollow (of eyes)kätkare
holy man (?)sādhuke
homagewināṣṣälñe
home, at (?)oṣle
homelesssnai-wäste, snai-saim snai-saimatstse
honeycautāṃ, mīt
honeycomb (?)śeriye
honor (vb.)paut-, winā-sk-
honor (n.)pauto, wināṣṣälñe, yärṣalñe yarke, ynāñmäññe, yaśe, pattit (?)
honorableyärkkessu, pernetstse
honorable ones, prtng to way of aryamarkṣe
honorable maitreya (?) aryamaitreye
honoringpautarṣke
hoof (?)kolyi
hopepärmank
hope forañmaññ-
hopefulpärmankätstse
hopeful, be pärmaṅk nes-
hornkrorīya
horoscopesaṃvatsarajñāṃ
horribleempelye
horror empelñe
horsehaye, yakwe
horseradishpatsaṃ (?)
hostileerkatte
hostility sanuññe
hotemalle
houseost, oskiye
house-builderost-yāmṣeñca
household official, apale
householderkattāke, osta-ṣmeñca ostaññe
householder from a prominent family agrakulike
householder, femaleostañña
house-priestpurohite
howmäkte
how longkos
how muchkos
howeverno, noṅk, rano
howl (of the wind)käln-
human (as opposed to divine)śāmñe
humanity (i.e., being human) śāmñäññe ~ śāmñe
hundredkante
hundred quarts (dry measure)cāk
hundred thousandśak-tmane
hungerkest
hungrykeścye
hungry, having goneeśuwatte
hunt (vb.)śer-, mäk-
hunt (n.)werke
hunterśerwe
huntingwerke
hurl3säl-
hurl downyäst-
hurricanenirghāt
hurt (vb.)mi-
hurt (n.)miyäṣṣälñe
hurting kekkarnor, upatāpi
husbandpets
husbandmankārṣake
huskpīsäl
hut koṣkīye, oskiye
hygrophilaaruṇariju
hymnślok
  
• I •
Iñaś
ice (?)krośce
ice-housekrośśe-maññe
ideapalskalñe
ideal personage of Hinayana Buddhism ar(a)hānte
idle yuṣe
idle talkkäskor
idlenessalāsäññe
ifente, inte, kwri
ignitetu-
ignore pruk-
ignoranceaknātsaññe, avidyä
ill, be alāsk-
ill-treatmentappamātäññe
illnesskapille, teki
illness, anupadrap
illness, anśo(-)ñe
illuminateluk-, pälk-2, tsāk-1
illuminated, beluk-
illuminationparkāsaṃ
illusion tserekwa
image yerpe
image, mirror tapakiṣṣe yerpe
imaginepälsk-
imaginationpalskalyñe
imbuesnätk-
immeasurableaparimāṃ
immediatelyśka,teteka, snai epiṅkte eṃṣke tot
immediately following behind ike-postäṃ
immoralduśśīle
immoralityduśśīlñe, aṅkāre (?)
immortalamārraṣṣe, oṅkrotte (or oṅkrotstse?), onuwaññe
immortalityonuwaññe
immovableawāskatte
impatienceamarṣ
impedimentcalle
impelledmakamo
imperceptiblemā-yśelme
imperfection (?) nakiññe
imperishablemuskalñetstse, anautatte
impermanenceanityāt
impetuosityairṣaitsñe
impetuous airṣaitsñetstse, airṣaitstse
implore (?)tär-
importantgaurap, kramartse
important mattertsamo
imprecationśāp
impulse kaume
impurity akappi, mā-astaräññe, kaṣāy (?)
iny(n)-
in additionrano
in front ofenepre
in ittune
in just this waytusāk
in no waymā-wko
in order thatmäkte
in the midstywārc
in the power ofekalymi
in this mannerte-mant
in two wayswasto
in whatever waykuce-yäknesa
in-e(n)-2
inaccessible ma-yalle
inaccessible to water ma-wär-tärkālle
inactivity alāsäññe
inauspiciousakuśal
incarnate kutk-
inciteṣärtt-
incitementṣertwe
inclination kaume
inclinenäm-
incline to aiw-
includingtänktsi
incomparable snai olyapo snai-mäktauñe snai-ypärwe, snai-ypärwaññe
incompatibilitywirot
inconstancymā-ṣekaṃñe
increase (vb.)auk-
increase (n.)tsmoññe, auki
increase (??)räsk-
increasingtsmotstse
indeedmapi, nai, ṣñike(k), wkä ats, pi, śka (?), attsaik
indefatigablealālätte, ekwallate
independentsnai-treṅkäl
indestructible aikatte, akautatte
indestructibilityaikatñe
Indianyentuke
indifferenceupekṣ
indifferentetrītrwaitstse
indifferent senseupekṣindri
indignationamarṣ
indigo/turquoise-like rājawat-yok
individualpudgalyik, ṣe
individual beingnāmarup
indolence alāsäññe
indomitable ayātaitstse
IndraYlaiñäkte
inertiaalāsäññe
infalliblenemcekaññe
infectionampoño
infinite aparimāṃ
infinitudeapramaṇi
inflamingupatāpi
inflammationpälśalñe, rätrauñe
inflammation of the skinkāswo
inflammation of the throatrohinike
inflict pain kärn-
influx (of the outer world) tsnamñe
informṣärp-
informeraksaṣṣki
infusionkaṣāy
ingredient of a great elementmahābhūtadravyi
inhabited areaostaṣṣa wṣeñña
inhabiting a cityriṣṣe
inhalationanāṣṣälñe
inhaleanāsk-
inheritanceñasso
inimicalsanassu
initiativeauñento
injuremänt-
injury karep
injurious milarṣe
inner beingāñme2
inopportune snai preke
inorganicsnai-onolmeṃtse
insatiabilityontsoytñe
insatiableontsoytte
insect peṣele
insideeneṃ, eneṅka
inside (a dwelling) (?)oṣle
insightlkālläññe, pilko
inspectoryirpṣuki
instantkṣāṃ, prentse, laute
instantaneoussnai ptsak
instigateṣärtt-
instigationṣertwe
instinct kaume
instructāks-1, en-
instructionakṣalñe, enäṣṣälñe keklyauṣor, ṣärpalñe, upadeś
instructoraksaṣṣuki, anuśāsake
instructs inākṣi
instrumentupāy
instrument, musicalploriyo
intelligent aiśamo
intendpäk-2, yätk-
intending päknāmo
intensifyklutk-
intensifying particlepest, ke, nta
intensifying prefixe(n)-1
intentionabhiprāy, päknālñe
intentional päknāmo
intercourse with, haveyäs-
intercourse, sexual
ykāssäññeṣṣe prayok
(interjection)hai
interlude (of a play)praveśakk
intermediate age . abhyantarakālp
intermediate eonantarakalp
intermediate state of existenceantarābhav
internalenenkāññe
internal subdivision of an eon antarakalp
interpret (a sign) āks-
interrupted kärstautstse
interruption-kärstau
intolerable ekaltte
intoxicating drink, a kind ofmāla
introduction (to a work) .praveśakk
investigateklep-, yel-
invisibleantartiṣ, naṣṭa
invitationkāko, kākalñe
invitekwā-, käly-
inwards eneṅkaś
Ipomea paniculatapitari
Ipomoea turpethumtärvärta
ipsemakte
irksome anaiwatstse
ironeñcuwo
iron-rustloharaje
irreproachableanākätte
irrigationyośiye
irritated, bemänt-
irritation (mental)māntalyñe
islanddvīp, prenke
issue (a proclamation)āks-1
itte, tu
itchsaiwe
itching saiwe
ivorykemeṣṣe
  
• J •
jabtsop-
jackalniśācare
Jainist religious mendicant . .ājivīke
jasmine, great floweringsumāṃ
jasmine, prtng to . kuntāṣṣe
jasmine, species of (?) . .mākaranda
jaundice kamāl, paṇḍarauñe, paṇḍurok
jawwicūko
jealousy (?)ṣesa kāntalñe
jestervidūṣake
jewelketwe, naumiye, prāp wamer, yetwe
jewel (golden)niṣke
jewel that yields desires .cintāmaṇi
jewel, a kind ofjyotiraso
jewel-likenaumikke
jointmeske
jointly (?)ywārppai
journey-taker (?)yalñetstse
joykatkauña, mudit, plānto kaccalya, wratstsoñña
joy, extremetsārwo
joyouskatkauñaṣṣe
judge (vb.)keś tā-
judge (n.)prekṣenta
judgedynāñm
judgmentkeś tättālñe
judicious imassu
juiceśūke
junior (?)kaccināk
juniperyāstaci
justka
just (now)tswaiññe
just as much asmi
just somäntak, mäntrākka, mant-ra taiknesak, taisāk
  
• K •
Kali-age, thekaliyuk
karmakārm
karmavācanā, one who speaks thekarmapāy-weṣṣeñca
Kashgariankaṣake
keep awayāl-, närk-, präṅk-
keep company withlāre yām-
kettleaise
kid (goat)śari
killkau-
killingkāwälñe, kekkarnor
kingottär
kindtäṅkwaññe
kind of, a/whatkucaññe
kind, after its prakārsa
kind of dwelling, apeṣṭi
kind treatmentynāñmäññe
kindletu-
kingwalo
kinsmanjñātike
kissskāw-
kneadklāw-2
kneeskeni
knifekṣur, yepe
knife-likekṣur-yakne
knowaik-, kärs-
knowingaiśi, aikemanetse
knowledge karsalñe, wic, kärsor, jñāṃ
knowledge gained by sight cakṣurvijñāṃ
knowledge in great amount jñānasaṃbhār
knowledge of another’s thoughtsparacittajñāṃ
knowledge, higherabhijñä
knowledge, practical or appliedvijñāṃ
knowledge, specialpratisaṃvit
knowledge, way ofdarśanamārk
Kr̥tajña, prtng to . .krätājñeṣṣe
kr̥tayuga-timekrätayuk
Kucheankuśiññe
kuśa-grasswasso, ask(w)ace
kuśalamūla, prtng tokuśalamūläṣṣe
kuśanes, bykuśanār
  
• L •
laborerkapyāre
laclākṣ
lacerate trus-
lack (vb.)mänk-
lackmänkorñe, menki, menkītsñe
lack on intentionanabhiprāy
lackingmenkītstse
ladkiśore
ladle (?)seme
lady śana
lair, denlesto
laityupāsakñe1
lakelyam
lambyrīye
lamepanku
lamentkwäs-, mänts-, träṅk-
lamentationkwasalñe
lampcok
land (adj.)keñiye
land (n.)yapoy
languagekantwo
languishklaiks-
lapcanke
largeorotstse
lassitude laiwo
lastaketstse, postanu
last (vb.)käly-
last (thing)ustama
last in time/placeakessu
last month of the year, prtng torapaññe
last and highest existencebhavākär
lastingeṃṣketstse, stamalñetstse
lasting only an instant (ṣeme) kṣaṃne yayaukka-
late, past duenauṣameṃ
laterpostaññe, postanu
latterpostaññe
latterpostanu
laughker(y)-
lawjñāpake, pelaikne, pele
lawlesssnai-pele, snai-peleśśañ
laws, collectiondharmaskant
lay to rest (of the dead)säl-2
lay wastemely-
lay-discipleupāsakāñca
lay-disciple, femaleupāsake
lazinessalāsäññe
lazy yuṣe
leadāk-, iyā-, käl-2
leadenläntaṣṣe
lead astraytsereññ-, trik-
lead wort, whitecitrāk
leader wayauca
leafpilta
leaguekwärsar
lean (?)el-
lean (on)sai-n-
leanness rūki
leap, make apruk-
learnākl-
learnèdbahuśrut, maimantstse, ūwe
learningāklyilñe, akalye
leatherewe
leave lut-
leave behindār-
leave openlyapākärtse yām-
led astrayoś-kakāmau
leech (?)śätkari
leftsaiwai
left over, belip-
legckācko
leg, uppermärkwace
lemon grasssugant
lengthpärkarñe
leopard (?) yerkwantalo
leprosykoṣṭ, kuṣṭh
leprosy, whiteświtär
lestmapi
lettärk-1
let alonekuce ṣäp (no)
let fallsäl-3
let gotärk-1
let hanglänk-
lethargy alāsäññe
letterparso
leucas (a plant)kutumñcik
Leucas lavandulaefoliakutumñcik
Leucas linifoliakutumñcik
lianaśkwarya, laitke, wāli
libation kekuwer, kwalñe, sumo (?)
lielyäk-
lie (n.)waike, waike-reki, waṣe
lie (on)wäs-2
lie downlyäk-
lie with (in sexual sense) (?)-mpa 2kätk-
lifeśaul
life-longśaulu-wärñai
liftmus-, täl-
liftingceccalor
light (n.) läkutsauñe, lalaukar, lyūke, lyoko (?)
light (vb.)tu-
light (up)luk-
light up with torchlight (?) pārśai tärk-
light (i.e., not heavy)lankutse
lightning bolt (?)parśiye
likeeneśle, menāk ra, ram(t) /rām(tä), ram-no
like (amount)sām
likewisesale, ślek, taisa, taisaktuka ram(t) /rām(tä), somotkäññe mi (?), tu-menāksa
lily, white waterkmut
limbāmpär1
limbpoko
limbswrenta
limit, utmosttotte
limitless aparimāṃ
limp ylāre
limpid aṣṭāṅgopet
linepāli*
linesälyiye
lineagegottär serke
lingersuk-
link meske
linked toritt-
lionṣecake, siṃhe
lipslymine
liquidśūke
liquid of some sortpanāk
liquorice matuk
listen toklyaus-
listen attentively pil-
listlesskuro
litermutkāntse, ṣaṅk
littletotka, yäkte-, yekte
little effort, withyäkte-skeyeṃ
little facerupaśke
little horseyäkwaṣke
little merely, ayäkte-yarm
little potkuntiśke
little workerkapyāriśke
little worth, ofkṣudrä, yäkte-perne
little, atotkā-yärm
liveśāw-
liverwästarye
livingśāmane
living beingjīvake
load calle (?), perpette, talle
loathingykāṃṣaññ-
loathsomenessykāṃṣe
local entwecce
locationīke
lock (of hair)letse
locustśalāp
lodh treeloträ
longemparkre, pärkare
long (of time)walkeññe
long (to do something)rit-
long (for something/someone)rit-
long time.walke
long time, after alaukar
long time, for alaukaññe, laukar
long-livedpärkre-śaul
longing (for)ritalñe, ñyās, wäntreśśe
lookpilko, lkālläññe
look around/up (?)saup-
look atläk-, pälk-1
look forward toläk-
look more closely atspe läk-
looking askancepkänte-pilko
looking at-lyāka
look, insatiable asecanadarśaṃ
loose (?)wipe
lordsaswe
losenäk-
lossparihāni
lost, benäk-
lotion (?)laiko
lotus, blue or sacred padmak, padum, uppāl
lotus, redsumagandh
lotus, root of whiteprapuntarik
loudwektse
louse (?)pärśeri
love (n.)larauñe, täṅkwalyñe, taṅkw ārtalñe, täṅkwtsäññe
love (vb.)ārtt-, lareññ-, täṅkw-aññ-
love-in-a-puffjyotispati
lovelinesstӓṅwalyñe, täṅkwaññäññe
lovelycäñcare, tänkwaññe
loving täṅkwaññe
low paścimike
lower (vb.)kārp-, kätk-2
lower the price pito kārp- (K)
lowerñorīye, ñormye
lower/nether (?)kaccināk
lower beingapāy
lowness ainakñe
luck sak(w)
luckless snaitstse
luckyskwassu
lucky, beskwaññ-
luminouspälkamo
lumpkrepaste
lunar fortnight, fourteenth day of caturdāś
lunar mansionnäkṣātär
lunar mansion, aphalgoṇi
lunar mansion, apunarwasu
lunar mansion, apuṣ-näkṣātär
lunar month, half apākṣ
lute, body of a (?)kaice
lying (not telling the truth)waikesse
  
• M •
madder, Indianbhant
magic (supernatural)raddhi, yātalñe
magic, prtng tor̥ddhiṣṣe
magical formula, part of a (?)mrik
magical skillwic
maid-servantmañiya
mainlandpetwe
maitreyamaitrāk, maitreye
majestyyātalñe
makeklutk-, yām-
make breatheanāsk-
make coheretsu-
make descendkārp-
make evidentreme
make glad, gladdenkātk-
make growauk-
make increaseauk-
make pour (?)ku-
make seeläk-
maleeṅkwaññe
male (of sheep or goat)āl
male lay-discipleupāsake
malicemāntalyñe, mantālo
malice, feelmänt-
maliciouswṣetstse
mallow, countrybal(ā)
man (= person)śaumo
man (= male human)enkwe
manage (to do something) kälp-
manifestapākärtse yām-
manifest, becomepyutk-
mangletrus-
mangoāmpär2, cut
mango, species of (?)mākaranda
mangosteemtamāl
manifestapākärtse
manifest(ly)yneś(ne)
manifestationlakäṣñe
manifoldmakā-ykne
mannerklautke, teri, yakne
manner, in thistu-yknesa
manner, after its prakārsa
mantlekampāl
manymāka
many, sotot
margin aśakula, uwaṃt (?)
markṣotri
marktskäññ-
market(day)krai
market-placeorpoṅk
marking nutbhallātak
marrowmrestīwe
marshkärkkālle
mashtsāp-
massage2klāw-
masterkäṣṣī, upādhyāye
master of horses (?)tarme
masterypāramit, kamartaññe
mastery over, havewlāw-
matraktsi, wente (?)
matchless snai wace
maternalmatarye
maternal example (?) māträdr̥ṣṭānt
mating (?) saṃvās
mathematical calculationgaṇit
matted hair matsi tswau
matter wäntare, wāstu
matter of importancetsamo
maturationvipāk
maturation (?)yuwalyñe
matureyu-
matured (?)auśiye
mealyäkṣiye
meal, coarse, (?)klese
mean (of people)ainake
meaningārth, weweñor
meansraitwe, upāy
measureyarm, pramāṃ
measure of a fathom, thekeṣe-yärm
measure of capacity, atrau
measurement, a distributive unit oftranmār
measure of capacity, a (4.0 - 4.5 liters)ṣank
meatmīsa
meat-eatingmisāśañ
meddle withmänt-
medical ingredientāśmagupti
medical ingredientcapraṣṭo
medical ingredientleyīk
medical ingredientmanotaci
medical ingredientmäśśakene
medical ingredientmotarne
medical ingredientrānme
medical ingredientrimmākka
medical ingredientrsīl
medical ingredientrutelle
medical ingredientsakāpce
medical ingredientśar
medical ingredientśärtākru
medical ingredientsmāś
medical ingredientsmur
medical ingredienttakur
medical ingredienttaluñca
medical ingredientweñe
medical ingredientwipitāk
medical ingredienterkās
medical ingredient (salep?)erkantse
medical remedy, asamasattu
medicinal earthvirank
medicinal plant, a kayast
medicinal plant, avayastä
medicinal plant, ar̥ṣapak
medicinal plant, asāpās
medicinesāṃtke
medicine applied via the nose mastukārm
meditationdhyāṃ ompalskoññe, ompalsko
meditation-heartdhyānāntar
meditative omplaksoññeṣṣe
meetingwertsiya, saṅket
Melia azadirachtapicumaṇḍa
melody mek (?), kene (?)
meltmäl-
meltingmlamo
memberpakeññe
member (of body)āmpär1, āṅk, lyiyo
member of a particular professionuwatake
members, the twelve . .dvādaśānke
mementoepyacäññe
memorizesarit
memory epiyac
memory ime
men, adult (?)śrāy
mental caitasike
mental reservationstarstwa
mental sphere (?) manāyataṃ
merchantkäryorttau, sārthavāhe
merchant, chiefśreṣṭhi
merciful aräñcatstse, karuṇaṣṣe
mercy täṅkwalyñe, añmālaṣlñe, karuṃ
mercy, have karuṃ er-
mergeresk-
merit (vb.)ārc-
merit (n.)yarpo
meritoriousyärpossu
merry, be (?) kāñm-
metaphormenāk
metaphysics, Buddhistabhidārm
method upacār
metrical formulacchando
Michelia campaka, prtg tocampākäṣṣe
mid air, inywārc
middleywārśkāññe
middle of, in theywārśka
mid-summerywārc-ṣmaññe
mightmaiyyo
milekwärsar
miles, twokroś kroç
milkmalkwer, payä
milk curds, coagulated (?). .payasya
milletāka(-lyekṣiye)
millionairekoṭiśvare
mindcetaṃ, palsko
mind, change one’s pratiṃmeṃ klautk-
mind, prtng to the .caitasike
mind-readingpalsko-ṣärpalñe
mindfulimassu
mindfulness of breathingānāpānasmr̥ti
minds, be of twoywārc mäsk-
minetaupe
mingletriw-
ministeramāc, spaktānīke
miracleāktekaññe, paryari, pratihari
miraculous paryariṣṣe
mirrortapākye
mirror, little tapākiśka
misconductamarṣṣe
misbehaviorduścarit
misdemeanorduṣkär
miserableanās, anāsäññe tallāñciśke, tallāw
miserytallārñe, aume
misfortunekaṣṭa
mistaketriśalñe, trikṣo
mistakenlytsätkwaṃ
mixtriw-
mixed, betriw-
mixing triwäṣṣälñe
mixturetraiwo, triwālñe, raitwe
moat tsrerme
mobilewaskāmo
mobility (?)waskamñe
moderateyärmaṃssu
moderation maimatsñe
modestkwipassu
modest personavatrāpi
modestykwīpe, kwipassorñe
moist, bewaiw-
moistenwaiw-
moisture, excessivewaiwalñe
molassespanit
moleākhu
momentlaute, prentse
moment, a singleṣekkāka
momentarykṣaṇik
monasterysāṅk, saṅkrām, tsāro
monastery, belonging to a . saṅkik
monasticṣamāññe
monastic code of conduct, . .prātimokṣ
monastic land (?)sankakeṃ
monastic officialpraskāre
monastic overseersankästere
monastic servantawāsīke
money, a unit ofcāne
money, a unit ofkuśāne
money, for much.kwāts (or kwats?)
mongoosenakūle
monkṣamāne, ārśe (?)
monk’s garb, saffron-coloredkaṣār
monk, prtng to aṣamāññe
monk, seniortsaṣke
monk, state of being aṣamāññe
monk’s overgarmentuttarāsāṅkä
monkeymokoṃśke
monkishṣamāññe
monstermātar
monthmeñe
month, twelfthrāp
monthly (?)meñye
moonmeñe
moon, newpratiwat
moonseed, heartleafkuruci
moonseed, heartleaf, leaf of amprätapātär
moral behavior, extolling . .śilavānde1
moral behavior, mode of vr̥tti
moral preceptśikṣapāt
moreolpo, olya, olyapo, olyapotstse oṃṣap, ṣap, ṣpak
moreoveroṃṣap, ṣpak, spek, yaka
Moringa oleiferakwrarāk
Moringa pterygospermakwrarāk
morning glory, finger-leafpitari
morning, in thetsonkaik
morning twilight, in the ksartse
morselkāpar
motherammakki, mācer
motioncarit
motion (?)gat
motion, set (something/someone) inśä-
motionless awāskatte
motionlessnesspopok
motiveṣarm
mountränk-
mountainṣale
mountain, prtng toṣlyiye
mountain-precipiceṣäle-yäst
molder (?)kärtk-
mournkwäs-
mournful pälwālñeṣṣe
mourningkwasalñe, mentsi
mouseākhu, maścītse
mouthkoyn
movelit-, rutk-, wāsk-/wäsk-
move (aside)mus-
move forcefully spālk-
move from its placemänt-
moveable chattel (?)koro
movementlek, wāsko
movingwaskāmo
muchmāka
much, sotot
Mucuna pruritaātmagupti
Mucuna prurita, fruit of theātmaguptaphal
Mucuna pruriensātmagupti
mucus, collection of kraupalñentse
mudṣpel, karkalla, 1naitwe
mugwortnāgapaträ
mung beanmāśak
munj (a grass)kuntark
murdererkauṣenta
musclespassoñ
mushonkarño
musicśarko?
musical instrumentploriyo
musicianplorīyatstse
muskrootputaniakeśi
mutemuka
myñśaṣṣe, ñiññe
myna (?)wrauña
myriad, at(u)māne
myrobalan, blackarirāk
myrobalans, the threeträphāl
myrrhsuras
myrrh-leafsuraspaträ
mystic diagram, designation of a nandikāwart
  
• N •
nāganāge
nails of fingers/toesmekwa
nameñem
name and formnāmarup
name of a workrahasyālankār
name, having (such-and-such) -ñematstse
name-basisnāmalaṃba[ṃ]
namedklāw-
namelykatu
nardputanakeśi
Nardostachys jatamansi, prtng topeparṣṣe
nasal medicamentnastukārm
natureprakār, ṣañ, ṣañäññe, svabhāp
navelkele
nearakart(t)e
near byspe, ysapar(sa), ysape, ispek
near toetsuwai
necessary, beklin-
neckkor
neck, nape of thekrāñi
nectarsutämär, yokasto
need, having great .māka-ñatstetstse
needle yaṣe
needle-casesucīkar
neem treepicumaṇḍa
neglectārtte tärk-, pruk-, yäk-
negligenceykorñe
negligencesnai-meṃtsñe
negligent(-)ykorñetstse
neighborhoodyoñiya
neighborhood of odor and tastegandharasopavicār
neighborhood of the law dharmopavicār
neighboringkälymiññe
neither enjoying nor suffering ubhayavipariti
Nelumbium speciosum, filament ofkiñcelle
Nelumbo nuciferauppāl
nestlesto, 2ypiye
nestling (?)wañce
nestling, prtng towiñcaññe
netsopi(ye)
nevermanta/mā … nta, mantanta
neverthelesswa, yaka
newñuwe, ñwetstse, ñwetsäññeṣṣe
new moon, day of theñuwe
newnessñwetstsäññe
New Year’s Eve (?)rapatstsa yṣiye
nightyṣīye
night, atkästwer, nekcīye
night, bykästwer
night, lastnekcīye
nightshade, Indianprahati
nightshade, yellow-berriedkaṇḍakāri
nineñu
nine thousand ñultse
nines, byñu-ñu, ñuwār
ninetyñumka
ninthñunte
nipple (?)piśpik
nirvananervāṃ, kselñe
nirvana, entering river tosrotāpanne
nirvana, prtng. to the entrance intosrotāpattiññe
nirvedha-bhāgīya, first stage ofuṣmakatäṣṣe
nirvana-seekingnervaṃ-ñaṣṣe
no
no onemā su ksa
no (one) at all mantanta ksa
no offenceanāpatti
nobilityklyomñe
nobleklyomo
noble birth, ofajānai
noble-likeklyomo-yok
noble family/stock/race āryavaṃś
noisewek, klena, weśeñña
noise, with little . .yäkte-weśeññai
noisy kleneu
non faciendusayāmätte
non-attainmentanāgat
non-destroying aikatte
non-existence (?)śunyāṃ
non-vessel abhājaṃ
northoṣṣale
north, northern, northerly. .oṣṣaleṣṣe
nosemeli
not
not at allmanta/mā … nta
not cast downamāllatte
not crossingekätkātte
not depressedamāllatte
not evil-mindedamāntatte
not passingekätkātte
not returning to this world anāgāme
not sticking toetrenkätte
nourishment śwātsi
novicenawāke, ñwetstse
novice (monk)ṣanmire
novice (nun)ṣanmirāñca
novice, state of beingṣanmīrñe
novice, youngṣarmir(i)śke
novitiateṣanmīrñe
nowñake, tompok
now on, from ñakesa wärñai
noxiouswe(ṃ)ṣyetstse
nudgenätk-
nugatory nutstse
numberkeś(e), ṣaṃṣäl
number, a very largetattari
numbers, in greatmasār
numbnesskläntsauñe, klantsalñe
nunaśiya
nut (??)kontac(e)
nutsedge, purpleparivelak, must
Nymphaea stellatanilutpāl
  
• O •
O (interjection)yśe
O woe (interjection)
o(h)arai
obesekraupalñetstse
obey [rules] pāsk-
objectvāstu, wreme, wäntare
object of discussion, prtng to (?)vādasthānäṣṣe
object of the āyatana (?)āyatanadravye
object of the sensesālambaṃ
object toräs-
objector (in disputations)codake
objects of the sense-organs āśrayāśrite
obeisance to, makeyarke yām-
oblationhom, cāl (?)
obscure (vb.)wāl-
obscure (n.)orkamo
obscurity orkamñe
observationlyelyakor, pälkālñe etswai-palkalñe
observation-posts (?) yärparwa
observeyärp-, anaiśai läk-
obstacleantarāy, pkante
obtainkälp-, yäm-
obtained, one who has notainmitte
obtainingkällālñe, saṃgrah (?)
obtaining sustenance āhārakr̥tyiññe
obviouspākri, pakartse, pakriṣṣe
obvious, bepākri nes-
obvious(ly)yneś(ne)
obvious, makepākri-yām-
obviousnesspākri-nesalyñe
occasionlyakur, preśc(i)ya
occasion, appropriatepreke
occasion, on this tanneṃ
occur kän-
occurrenceprāpti
oceansamudtär
Ocimum sanctum (?)yärper
offenseduḥ
offensive thingaśubh
offer a libationku-
offering, religioustelki
official, government (?)wäntareśce
officer, passport control (?)yuretstsaññe
offspring (?)ṣaiyyiśke
oh (interjection)au
oilṣmare
oil, sesameṣalype, tail
oil-producing fruit (?)miyaśke
oil-producing fruit (?)miye
oil-bearing plant, prtng to a kind ofsunniyerkarñaññe
oilinessṣmarñe
ointmentṣalype
old (of age)ktsaitstse, moko, śrāñ (?)
old, growkwär-
old-agejar, jarāmaraṃ, ktsaitstsäññe
oleander, prtng to .karavīräṣṣe
olibanum (?)sugandhik
olive (?)miye, miyaśke
omens, acquainted with .nimittājñe
once upon a timenauṣ
once onlyṣe-keś
one after the otheryke-postäṃ
one anotherālyauce
oneselfṣañ-ñem, ṣañ āñm
one by oneṣe-ṣe, somo-somo
one eachsomār
one who knowskärsauca
one who takes (away)sampauca
one (numeral)ṣe
onlyattsaik, ka, ṣemeske
onwardsyauṣmauṣ
openru-1
open, in the (?) pākre
open space apākärtse ike
open widekāy-
openinglyauto
Operculina turpethumtärvärta
opinion (??)sok(t)
opinionated (?)soktatstse
opportunitylaute
opposite wrantsai
opposite direction, in theaṣkār
oppressmäl-1, nusk-, 1käl(t)s-
oppressionnauske
oppression (?)ñuṣṣalñe
orepe, wat1
orbyerpe
orbit (?)kaunär
orchard (?)warśiye
orchid, Rincokleṅkarya
orderwätk-
ordinance śāstär
ordinary kärpiye
ordinationwasaṃpāt, abhiṣek
ordination, place of.wasaṃnpāt-maññe
ordure, prtng to (?).kaṣāntaṣṣe
organiconolmeṃtse
organs and objects of the sensesāyataṃ
originpärkālñe, ṣarm, utpatti
origin by dependencepratītyasamutpat
original (?)ṣärmassu
ornamentketwe, yetwe, tsaiññe
ornament, goldenniṣke
ornament, a kind ofkalapak
orpiment, bright yellow .korośāna
orthodoxy empreṃ pilko
ospreykurār-lūwo
otherallek, wate
otherness, havingalyiyatstse
otherwiseāläṃ, ālo, epe
otherwise than before allek tesa
ouncesatera
out of the wayytārimeṃ
out from underneath ñorameṃ
outcastcaṇḍāle
outcome, prtng tonaiṣyandik
outlaywyai
outsideparna, parra
outside (a dwelling) (?)pākre
outside, when seen from the pärnā-pälskemane
outward appearancerup
outwardly parnaś
over (all)śār
over-śariye
over and above oṃṣap
overarchingśār
overcomemänk-, yuk-
overcomingyūkalñe
(over-)excite someoneyäs-
overflowplätk-
overgarmentśarāk
overgarment, monk’suttarāsāṅkä
overlookārtte tärk-, pruk-
overseeyärp-
ovicapridśaiyye
owingperi
owluluke
ownṣäññäññeṣṣe, ṣañ, ṣañäññe
oxokso
oxalis monadelphaampraṣṭo
oyster-shellwrāko
  
• P •
pātayanika-sin, thepāyti
paddock wepe
painkleś, lakle, pälśalñe, tsärśalñe
painful läkleṣṣe, laklesse, waimenetstse
painfullyerkatse (?)
paintpik-
palacekerccī, stāṅk
palace, divine, movable .wimāṃ
paleyolyiye
palm (of the hand)aliye
palm-treetāl
panegyric (?)stāp
panic (?)wiyo
pañcagavya (a medical ointment)pañcakavvi
paṇdit aiśaumye
pantomimeabhinai
parable menāk
parchās-1
pardonkṣānti
parliamentarian (?).karamavācaṃke
parousiaekṣalye
partāṅk, mārgāṅk, pāke
partakewärp-
partakerwärpauca
participantyamaṣṣuki
patient (medical) tekīta
passṣärk-
pass awaylait-
pass onkätk-1, lit-
pass throughkätk-1
pass (of time)kätk-1
passableaiñye
passage kätkālñe
passage of timekätkor
passioneṅkäl, kāmagun
passionate eṅnkalsu
passionless airpätte
pastkätkor
past (of time)pūrvāntik
past atit
pasteklyauccasi
paste deposited by oily substanceskālk(o)
paste derived by grinding mlyokotau
pastilleṣpakīye
paternalpatarye
pathymīye, yoñiya, ytārye
patrontanāpate
pausemauki
Pavonia odoratahrībera
Pavonia odorata, prtng topalāṣṣe
pay attention tokeç āk-
pay (out)ai-
pay debts peri lutäsk-
peaceāñu
peak (of a mountain) tarne
pearlhār, naumiye
pearl necklacemuktihār
peasantkārṣake
peculiaritysvabhāp
peekperk-
peepperk-
peerperk-
pelage aṣitañ
penancepilycalñe
pendulouslänkamo
pen/foldteṅke
penetrate (from downward blow)pyāk-
penisindri, eṅkwaññe ṣotri
penitenceonmiṃ
penreed grassmuñcatak
pensive ompalskoññeṣṣe
Pentaptera tomentosacipak
peopleśaiṣṣe, yśāmna
pepper[see Piper]
peppercāvvi
pepper, black (?)mrañco
pepper, Indian longpippāl
peppercorn (?)mrañco
pepper-tree, orange hareṇu
perceivingwarpamo
perception anubhāp, lyelyakor, warpalñe
perception of (magical) knowledgevidyāsaṃsparś
perception of the mind . .manovijñāṃ
perchancemai
perfectsnai-lyipär
perfect(ed)saṃskr̥t
perfect-signsaṃskr̥talakṣaṃ
perfection, sign of (?)saṃskr̥talakṣaṃ
perfumegandha
perineal raphe, prtng to thesivenäṣṣe
perishmusk-, näk-, spärk-
perishability, knowledge of .kṣayajñānaṃ
perishing muskalñe
permanentlyśāśwat
permeatesnätk-
permissible, renderkalpit yām-
permissionplāki
permission, withoutamplākätte
permitkälm-
perpetuallyṣek
persist inritt-
persistencestamalñe
persistent (?)soktatstse
persistentrittaṣṣeñca, stamalñetstse
personśaumo, onolme
personalañmaṣṣe, pudgalyik
personal belongingspariṣkār
perversetsatku
petalpilta, welke (?)
peter out spāw-
pfui (interjection)hiśt
Phaseolus mungoturani
Phaseolus trilobusmutkavarṇi
philosopherpälskauca
phlegmleśp
physical elementrupaskant
physiciansaṃtkīnau
pick (of flowers or fruit)räss-
pieceṣat, peṅke, pāke
piercetsāk-2, tsāp-
piety takarṣkäññe
pigsuwo
pillṣpakīye
pine, chirvräka
Pinus longifolia, resin of ?vräka
piouskärtse-ṣälype, pilycalñetstse takarṣke, takarṣkäññetstse, śrāddhe
Piper aurantiacumhareṇu
Piper chavacāvvi
Piper longumpippāl
Piper longum, root ofpippalimula
Piper nigrum (?)mrañco
pipesstmānma
pistache morronemāṣavarṇi
pitkoto, kāre
pity (n.)karuṃ, añmālaṣle, añmalaṣkaññe
pity (vb.)wärs-1, karuṃ er-
pityingañmālaṣke
place (n.)ścmoñña, īke, sthāṃ vāstu, wṣeñña, keṃ
place, take one’snesalñe yām-
place (vb.)tā-, li(n)- (?)
place by placeyke-postäṃ
place of most senior in rankputanti
place of one most junior in ranknawanti
plagueñyātse
plansāñ
planetsgrahanma
plant (vb.)sāry-
plant part, akremīya
plant part, aläṣṭanta
plant part, atsänkwale
plant part, awelki
plant speciestsapāñce
plant speciesvräka
plant species enmelya
plant species, prtng to akätarñe
plant species, prtng to asaccaṣṣe
platform (?)ränkāñi
play (vb.) (?) kāñm-
play (a musical instrument)yām-
play (n.)kāñme
play (n.)nāṭak
plea leśamāträr
plead tär-
pleasantayāto, nekarṣke
pleasecäṅnk-, swār-, ārtt-
please then mapi
pleasingersnāssu, täṅnkwaññe
pleasure katkauña, wināññe
pleasurableyśelmetstse
pleasurecäñcarñe, modit, swāralyñe wīna, yāso, ārtalñe, larauñe
pleasure, find wināññ-
pleasure-hall?wīna-māññe
pleasure (sexual)yśelme
pledge (?)nip-
plenty itauñe
pliablewlaṃśke
pliant (?)mällarṣke
plow (n.)?pāto
plowingrapālñe
plowshare (?)keme
pluckmlut-
pluck (fruit)sälk-
pluckingmlutālle
plum, Indiantālis
plumagepār
Plumbago zeylanicacitrāk
pockmarks (?)sänkīñ
poemkāvvi
pointedtsänkarwaṣṣe
poisonwase
poisonouswsetstse
poketsop-
polish by rubbingkānt-
political affairsnay
politicsnay
pollenspaitu
pollution akappi
pondkaumiye
pond, (large, deep)yolme
Pongamia glabrakarañcapijä
Pongamia pinnata, seed ofkarañcapijä
poolkaumiye, yolme
poorsnaitstse
populousmāka-onolmeṣṣe
poreklokaśce
porridgeṣwīye, oṅkarño
portalyenme
portionmeske, ñasso, pāke, mrakwe
positionīke
possessed of emptinessaikäruṣa
possessionekaññe, ekaññi
possession-seekingṣñassu
possession(s)waipecce
possessions, one who has manyartkaretstse
possibleayāto
post (n.)esale
post (vb)putk-
potbhājaṃ, lwāke, sapule kunti, kuntipāśaṃ
pot, cookingaise
pot (a type of) (?)watsālo
potent (of a man)preṃtsa
Pothos officinalistecapati
potsherd (?)tarśka
potterlwaksātsaika
potter’s clay, prtng tokwraiññe
poulticeṣpakīye, tsatsāpar, ṣpel
pourku-, 1kälts-
pour outmutk-
povertysnaitsñe
powdercūrṇ, pāwe
powerśakti, maiyyo, warkṣäl yātalñe, cämpamñe, nete, tant
power (supernatural) cämpamñe
power (supernatural)raddhi, bāl
power over, haveyāt-
powerful-yātalñetstse, maiyyātstse maiyyāu, wärkṣaltstse, tsirauññetstse
powerlessavaṣi
practice (n.)upacār, waräṣṣälñe, akalye
practice (vb.)wär-
practice (moral behavior)pāsk-
practicing yogayogācāre
praise (n.)pālalñe, palauna, papālar
praise, act ofārtar1
praise (vb.)päl-, ārtt-
praiseworthypälalye, pällarṣke
praising ārtar
pravārana-rite, prtng topravaritṣe
pravārana-rite, a monk about to do the prawarik
prayerślok
precious substanceratāṃ
precipiceyast
predispositionskeye
pregnant preṃtsa
pregnant (of animals?)itomtsa
preparation (medical) raitwe
preparewänk-
prepare carefully särk-
prepared withN-sa arwāre
presence of, in the enepre
present (vb.) sälk-
present (adj.)mäskeñca, nesamane
present (n.)pratyutpaṃ, yneśaññe
present, beṣäm- läm-
presentationprayok
presskälts-, närs-, 1kälts-
press togetherwälts-
pressing (?)mällarṣke
pressurenetke
pretendyakne yām-
pretense (?)nāne
pretense leśamāträr
pretextṣewi
pretext leśamāträr
previousnauṣaññe, nauṣu
pricepīto
price, lower the pito kārp- (K)
prick up (the ear) pil-
prideamāṃ, śarwarñe, śāmpa
princemäñcuṣke
princessmäñcuṣka
principlepadārth
priornauṣ, nauṣaññe, nauṣu
prisonpele, prautke
privateṣemeske
private parts concealedkośagat
private parts revealedapākśai
procedurevicār, upacār
proceedkätk-1
process (n.)vicār
proclaimāks-1, ś(c)änm-, pākri yām- täp-, parna we-
proclamationpākri-yāmor
procuretäk-
prodwārw-
produceer-, täm-
produce (metaphorically)sälk-
produce (of fruit)ś(c)änm-
productionutpatti, utpat, lyucalyñe
profitkallau
profitable pärkāwṣe, pärkāwtse
profligacy aṅkāre
profound kätkare
profuse ite
progress (vb.)ecce spārtt-
promenaded; one who walked aboutcaṅkramit
prominent family, one from a veryagrakulike
promise (n.)plāki
promote (vb.)tsäm-
prompt 2räs-
promptingnetke
pronounce (solemnly)parna we-
prooflakäṣñe
propel, i.e. shootkärsk-
properayāto, mäskelle
proper observancecarit
prophecyvyākarit
prophesyvyākarit kälp-
property ekaññe, waipecce
propitiousemprentse
proportionally somotkñe
proportionate (?)meskeṣṣe
proprietyacār
prosper parāk-
prosperity yṣwarkaññe, phalasaṃpat (?)
prosperouskuśal, śāte
protagonist (in a play)nāyake
protectrāk-, pāsk-
protectionpaṣṣalñe, saim
protectorsaim-wäste
protocol (?)yärṣiye
proud śarware
prove (?)läkäsk-
provisions trokol
provocateurerṣuki
prudence aiśai-yamalñe
prudent imassu
pubisyoñiye
public, makepākri yām-
publicationpākri-yāmor
publiclyenkaucar
publishpākri yām-
pudendum muliebrestrīndri
puerilemalyak(k)e
pullyärtt-
pull downnitt-
pull outru-2, pänn-
pull overaip-
pull up pänn-
pull/draw (out/away)sälk-
pulmonary consumptionśoṣ
puncture vineklyoto
punishen-
pupilakalṣälle
purchase-pricekärnātsi
pureastare
pure (of water) aṣṭāṅgopet
purgativeśodhäṃ, tälpālle
purged, betälp-
purification, completeviśuddhi
purifyrin-
purityastaräññe, kappi, viśuddhi
purposesarrīwenta
purulentsekwetstse
pussekwe
pushnätk-
pustule yoro
puttā-
put onwäs-1
put togetherwälts-
put up an obstacleantarāy yām-
put (something) under control sañāt yām-
  
• Q •
quakemiw-
quarrelśalna
quarrelsomeśalnāu
quartmutkāntse, ṣaṅk
quarts (dry measure), tentau
quarter (of the world) kälymiye
quarters, temporaryśaiyāsaṃ
queenlāntsa
quenchkäs-
questionpärk-1, prāśśäṃ
questioned, to beprekṣalle
questioner prekṣātstse
quicklyramer, ñatke (?)
quiet (?)stitstse
quietlyām
  
• R •
race (of people)gottär
radiate (?)2tär-
radianceläkutsauñe
radiant swañcaiṣṣe
radish?patsaṃ
raftplewe
rafterkleñca
rag kretswe
ragkutsāre
rags (?)sakna
rain (vb.)su-
rain (n.)swese
rain- (adj.)ylaiñeṣṣe
rainingswāsalle
rainstormpraściye
raisetäl-
raise oneself uptsänk-1
raised, keeptäl-
raisingceccalor
raktagulma (?)yasar-tsamo
ramariwe, āl
range presno
rankkare, perne
rare yulyaiññe*
rash (?)platkāre
ratākhu, maścītse
rather thanolyapo, wat1
ratification on a piece of wood or-śacākare
rational person śle-palsko
ravishyäs-
rawkärpiye, māme
rawnessmamauñe
ray (of light)swāñco
razorkṣur
razor-likekṣur-yakne
r̥ddhipādarätipat
reachyäm-
readyārwer, arwāre
ready, becomepäst pyutk-
real(ly)yneś(ne)
realized, bekän-
really pi
reasonālambaṃ
rebel against wrantsi tsäṅk-
rebirthcamel
rebirths, cycle ofsaṃsār
recallepiyac käl-
recall (to someone)epiyac yām-
recede kwäl-
receiptutpāt, ṣau
receive wärp-
receptacletāsi
receptionsaṃgrah
recite 1klāw-
recite in orderkeś we-
recipientwärpauca
reckoninggaṇit
recognition signprativijñaptilakṣaṃ
recognizeaik-, kärs-
recollectionime
recompensepkelñe
redratre
red lotussumagandh
redden (?)cf. rutelle
redeemtsälp-
redeemer (?)tsalpäṣṣeñca
redemptiontsälpālñe, tsälpelñe
redirected towardwräntsaitstse
rednessrätrauñe
reduce (a price)kārp-
reedskarwa
reflected, beālp-
refreshparāk-
refreshed, beparāk-
refreshmentparākalñe, tsārwäṣṣälyñe
refugeśarāṃ, śrāṃ, śrigupti saim, waste, niśrai
region or part of the worldlokadhātu
regionyoñiya, kälymiye
regional (?)kälymiññe
regnal yearkṣuṃ
regret onmiṃ
regulation śāstär
reignkṣuṃ
reimbursementaṣkār
rejectpränk-
rejoiceplānt-
rejoice, be gladkātk-
rejoice inecce ñäsk-, ompostäṃ ārtt-
related/belonging to family ofcmel(ä)tstse
related to in the third degree (?)traiṣṣe
related in the second degree (?)wteṣṣe
relating tomilkautstse
relativejñātike, ṣañ-śaumo, ṣñaṣṣe
release (?)śnāsk-
relinquishlau tärk-
release (n.)tarkalñe, tarkatsi, prahāṃ
release from existencewimūkti
release from existence, way towardvimuktimārg
relicdhātu
relics (bodily)śarīr
relinquishlau tärk-
relinquishmentwikālñe
rely on päkw-
remainlip-, ṣäm- / läm-, wäs-2
remain (behind)sāk-
remainderlipär
remarkableṣotarye
remedyāgat, sāṃtke, prayok
rememberepiyac käl-
remembering, the manner of epiyac kalalñeṣṣe
remembers, one who epiyac källāṣṣuki
remindepiyac yām-, räs- (?)
remnant lipär
remorseonmiṃ
remorseful onmiṃṣe
remote akañc, akañcar, lauke
removalrutkalyñe
removelitk-, rutk-
remove (utterly) from its placemänt-
renegekaut-
renew (?)rätk-
renewalñwetstsäññe
renounceār-, ri-n-, ārsk-
renouncerrīnätstse
renouncingrilyñetstse
renown ñem-kälywe
renunciationrilläññe, paucciṃ, ārӓlñe
repeatsmāṃ yām-
repentonmiṃ yām-
repentanceonmiṃ
repentant onmiṃṣe
repetitionsmāṃ
replyplāce
reprehensible nakṣalle, nakanmatstse (?)
represent dramaticallyabhinai yām-
repressmäl-1
reproach (vb.)nāk-, skär-
reproach (n.)nākälñe
reprovenāk-
repulsionykāṃṣe
requireñäsk-
requirementritalñe
requitalpkelñe
resemblancesādr̥śyäññe
resemblingtasemanetstse
residenceniśrai
resident of a monastery (?) . .awāsīke
residue lipär
resolutewätkāltse
resolutionepretäññe, pratiṃ
resolvepratiṃ
resolution wätkau āñme
resoundkäln-
resoundingkleneu, neweu, ṣuṣye
respectpauto
respectfulyärs-
respectful behavior (?)yärṣiye
respect, show yärs-
respectiveṣñār
respectively (?) ṣñār ṣñār
resplendentpärsāntse
restāñu, leki
rest from travel during monsoonpakaccāṃ
resting placeleke, leki, leṃ
restrainsāk-, prām-
restrain oneselfpräṅk-, wlāw-
restraint yāntär
resultoko
result, prtng tonaiṣyandik
resuscitateanāsk-
retainerṣañ-śaumo
retinuewertsiya
returnaṣkār länt-, klautk-
return trip (?)wräntsaitstse
returningklautkalñe
retribution (?)toromñe
returning only once again sakr̥dāgamiṃ, sakr̥tākāme
reveal (oneself)apākärtse yām-
revelation of Indra, prtng. toindravyākaranäṣṣe
reverenceyarke, yärṣalñe, yärṣiye (?), rmamñe
reverendśaulassu
reverseaṅkaiṃ
revilekuts-, nāk-
reward (?)toromñe
rhetorical devicepadakaikāvali
rib (?)pauṣke
riceklu
rice grueloṅkarño
rice-vinegarkāñci
richśāte
riches, prtng tośatomñeṣṣe
rideklāṅk-
rift lyauto
right, be ārtt-
right (as opposed to ‘left’)śwālyai
right away tompok
right effect (?)saṃvr̥tti
right thereompek
right wordśapt
righteousnesspelaikne
ringpekwe
rip offpāss-
ripenpäk-1, yu-
ripeningpkelñe
risepärk-2, tsäṅk-1
rise aboveräṅk-
risingtsaṅkalñe
rising (of the sun) udai, pärkālñe, parkor
rite for averting (an) evilśānti
rite or actnitya
ritual bathingabhīṣek
riverāp, cake, makalñe, tseñe
rhinoceroskhaḍgaviṣāne
roadytārye
roarnewe, nūwalñe
roar a roarnu-
robcowai tärk-, kärk-1
robberkälpaṣṣuki, wārṣ(ṣ)e, cowaitstse
robe, a monk’ssanghāṭi
rockkärweñe
rock-saltsintāp
roofraktsi, ṣim
rooster’s combṣim(?)
rootmakūl, witsako
root of meritkuśalamūl
root, grammatical dhātu
root-bark (?)lasto
rope (?)wente
rose, Christmaskatukarohiṇi
rosewood, Indianśāñcapo, karuṇasāri
rotāmp-
rottennessampoño
roughkärpiye, rukṣ, aśāwe räskare, scire
row bhakti
royallantuññe1
royal dignitylantuññe2
royal r̥ṣi/saintrājarṣi
royaltylantuññe2
rublyu-, kānt-
rubbish-heaptaur
rub awaykānt-
rub in/onsanāp-
rub lightly with a liquidlup-
rubbingkāntalñe
Rubia cordifoliabhant
ruleacār, jñāpake, sälyiye
rulerkamartīke
rulershipkamartāññe
rulership of the world, prtng. tocakravārtti
rules of discipline for monkswinai
runmäk-
runningmakalñetstse
rupture of the body .ātmapāvabhet
ruru-deerruru
rustloharaje, kentse
  
• S •
sāṃkhyā doctrine, adherent of thesāṃkhye
“sabbath,” Buddhistposat
Saccharum munjakuntark
Saccharum sara, the grass . .muñcatak
sack (?)ṣorpor
sacred textpravacaṃ
sacrificetelki-yāmor, telki
saffronrutir
saffron, prtng to kurkamäṣṣe
sagerṣāke
sake of, for thepakāna, pelkiñ
sal ammoniac (?)cātir
sal treeśāl, sarja
sale peplyaṅkor
sale, come up forplänk-
sale, forpläṅkṣalle
salep (?)erkantse
saltsalyiye
salt encrusted ground (?) . .salañce
salt used medicinally, fetid. .wiralom
salt-flat salañce
saltysalyitstse
salty, make (?)räsk-
salvation kartse
salvelaupe, ṣalype
salve, aacalasuttär
salve, amahāvaidyehik
salve, atätik
salve, applylaupe yām-
salve, prtng to a alepāṃṣṣe
samāpatti, a kind ofvyutkrāntik
same (in singular)ṣe
sanctuaryyärkemaññe
sand warañce
sandalpannāk
sandalwood (tree)cantāṃ
Sansevieria zeylanica. .murvva
sapśūke, yasoñña (?)
sapphireindranīl
sarsaparilla, Indianśārip
satiationsoylñe
satietysoylñe
satisfied, besoy-
satisfysoy-
satisfy oneselfsoy-
Saussurea lappa (?)kaṣṣu
savage col
savory śuketstse
saywe-
scale/fish-scalepintsamo
scarcelyka
scarepärsk-
scattertäṃts-, käsk-
scatteredwaiptār, waiptāyar, waipte
schism saṅghabhed, tsrorye
science of the yearhor
Scindapsus officinalistecapati
scholar aklaṣṣälye
scoldnāk-
scornmaṣṣāt
scornfulappamatiśśa, erkatte
scrape off (?) märtk-
scribelekhāke
seasamudtär
search forrit-, ñäsk-
sea-saltviśīr
seasonpreśc(i)ya
season (fit)ekṣalye
seatasāṃ
seat of desirekāmadhātu
seated, beāsk-
secondwate, wteṣṣe
secret, in/secretlyenestai
sectarian mark on the forehead, a (?)kalapak
sectionkraupe
section (of a work)-vārg
sediment (?)ṣaiweñña
seeläk-, pälk-1
seedśäktālye, sārm, tāno
seeing-lyāka
seeing, way ofdarśanamārk
seekñäsk-, rit-, 2yu-, yätk-
seeker-rita
-seeking-ñäṣṣe
seer (inspired)rṣāke
seerpälkauca*
seeressrṣakāñca, pälkaucäkka
seizeeṅk-
selfāñme2
self or soul, precede fromādhyātmike
selfṣañ-añm
-selfmakte
self-insight ātmadr̥ṣṭi
selfish (?)añmatstse
selfishnessentse
self-reproachāñm-nākälñe
sellpläṅk-
seller-pläṅkṣiñña, -plaṅkṣi
selling plyañcälñe
Semecarpus anacardiumbhallātak
semenśukkär
senator (?)ypoy-moko
senior (?)ortonāk
sendlu-
sensationvedaṃ, warpalñe
sensation-bodyvedanākāy(i)
senseārth
sense(-organ)indri
sense-functionsyälloñ
senses, having sharptīkṣnendri
senses, object of thewiṣai
senses, possessingsendri
senses, range of thewiṣai
senses, seats of the six organs orṣaḍāyataṃ
senses, three ranges of thetaryopavicār
sensualyśelmeṣṣe, yśelmetstse
separate (vb.)putk-, wätk-, wāk-
separate (adj.)waiptār
separate (entirely)tsär-
separated (fr. external influence)pätk-
separated, betsär-
separatelywaiptār, waiptāyar, waipte
separationputkalñe, tsrālñe, tsrelñe tsror, patko
separation, prtng to tsrelleṣṣe
sequenceserke
serene, becometakarṣke mäsk-
serpentauk1
serpent demonnāge
servantviṣe, imāne, spaktānike
servicekärtsauñe, spaktāṃ
service, devotedkritāṃ
service (religious)yarpo
servitudemañiññe
sesamekuñcit
setṣäm-/läm-, tā-
set (down)kätk-2
set (of the sun)yäp-
set footsik-
set off (?)parinermita
set outmit-
set upon tän-
setamolipr̥śnaparṇi
setting (as of the sun) . .kläskālyñe
sevenṣukt
sevenfoldṣuk-yäkne
seventeenśak-ṣukt
seventhṣuktante
seventies, byṣuktaṅkar
seventyṣuktaṅka
severerätkware
sexual excitement (?)ṣesa kāntalñe
sexual intercourse ykāssäññeṣṣe prayok
shabby klestetstse
shackles (?)eñcil
shadeskiyo
shadowskiyo
shakemiw-, triw-, wip-, wāsk-/wäsk-
shakingmamaiwar
shallownesstparṣkäññe
shallowtparṣke
shamekwīpe, yase, marki (?)
shame-place (i.e. penis) .kwipe-ike
shamelessoṅkipṣe
shape (n.)rup, saṃsthānarūp, tsātsaikar, ersna
shape (vb.)tsik-, wrāt-
shape, havingrūpi
shapely ersnāssu
shaper/former-tsaika
share (n.)ñāsso, pāke, pautke
share (vb.)putk-, ñāss- (/)
shared aṅkāmnitstse
sharpakwatse
sharp(-tasting)mātre
sharpen kānts-
sharpness akwatsäññe
shavemärtk-, 2nu- (??)
shavingmartkalñe
shesāu
shearwārk-
sheathaiyyer, oṅkor
shed blood yasar lut-
sheepśaiyye, eye
sheep (female)āu
sheep, prtng toaiyye
sheepfoldteṅke
sheep-speck (a small measure)aviraje
she-goatās
shellwrāko
shell (turtle’s)lyñā-
shelter niśrai, waste
shepherd (?)muśnāśi
shinckācko
shinepälk-2, tu-, ruk-1
shiningläkutsetstse, lak(u)tse, lyukemo naumikke, lyakwaññe, pälkaññetstse
shiver/shatter (?)śäp-
shoepannāk
shootkärsk-
shoot upward (?)kus-
shoot (fresh)kaume
shoots (of plants) (?)tsäṅkana
shore (other)totte
Shorea robustasarja, śāl
Shorea robusta, sap ofsarjaras
shorttotka
short (of time)yäkte-yarm
short, inaultsorsa
shortagemeṅki
shoulderāntse
shout (vb.)śauk-
shout (n.)nūwalñe
shout a shoutnu-
shovenätk-
showläk-, nān-, sälk-, nāṭak
shrinepat, yärkemaññe
shrine, prtng to (?)cetiṣṣe
shrivelklaiks-
shunwik-
shut upprutk-
sickalāṣmo, tekiññe
sick, bealāsk-
sickness alaṣṣälle
sida, arrow-leafpratipal
Sida cordifoliabal(ā)
Sida rhombifoliaatibala, pratipal
sidepoṣiya, pākṣ
sight (n.)lkālläññe
sight (vb.)läk-
signnmit, ṣotri
sign of resultphalalakṣaṃ
signalṣotarye
silenceām
silence (vb.)/silent, bestin-
silk, bolt of whitekaum*
silver (adj.)ñ(i)kañce
silver (n.)ñkante
similar (amount)sām
similarlysomotkäññe
simultaneouslyślek
sintranko
sin against someone (?) trik-
sin punished with temporary
excommunication, asaṃghāvaśeṣ
sin whose penalty is deathanantārś
sin, besettingwalāntsa
sincekuce
sincere (person)emprentse
sinewṣñor
sinfultränkossu
singpi-
sing a songśarka yām-
singingpāyalñe, śarka
single personṣe
singularityṣetstsäññe
sinksläpp-
sinneryolo-yamortstse
sisterṣer
sister (little)ṣerśka
sisters, related aseṣerñe
sitāsk-, ṣäm-/läm-
sitting-matniṣīdaṃ
situated, beṣäm-
situationnesalñe
sixṣkas
sixes, by ṣkäsār
sixfoldṣkas-yäkne
sixteenśa(k)-ṣkäs
sixteenthśak-ṣkaste
sixthṣkaste
sixty ṣkaska
size orotstsäññe, yarm
skeletonkwrāṣe
skillepastyaññe, sāñ, amok tikṣṇauñe, saṃjñä
skilled tikṣṇe
skillfulepastye, maimantstse, uwe
skin, innerewe
skin, outer skinyetse
skin diseasekuṣṭh
skirts (??)keñinta
skull kaccāp
skyakāśe, eprer, iprer
sky-elementākāśadhātu
slavekӓryau
slave/servant, femalemañiya
slave/servant, malemañiye
slaverymañiññe
sleep (vb.)klänts-
sleep (n.)ṣpane
sleepinessklantsalñe, kläntsauñe
slendersesino-
slippery ṣmare
sliverṣat
slothalāsäññe
slow (?)raiwe
smallkṣudrä, lykaśke, totka, yäkte-
small measure, oftotkā-yärm
small unit of measureaviraje
smearlup-
smell (vb.)wär-sk-
smell (n.)were
smilesmi-
smoothṣmare, laṃse
smudge märk-
snakeauk1, sarpe
snake venom (?)casi
snake (calendrical cycle of years)auk
snake (poisonous)arṣāklo
snake, a kind ofcat
snake, a kind of (?)terwe
snorting/snorting (?)sroṅkiṃ
snake plantmurvva
snowyśiñcatstse
somäkte, mant, taisa, taise, taisu
soarplu-, plus-
softwlaṃśke
soft (of hair)lalaṃṣke
soilkariṣ yām-
sojournsāk
Solanum indicumbr̥hati, prahati
Solanum xanthocarpumgandhakāri kaṇḍāri, kaṇḍakāri
sold, bepläṅk-
soleṣemeske, ṣeske
solidprākre, kwants
solstice (?)śopiye
somekca, ksa
some (in plural)ṣemi
something unwanted .anaiwatsñe
something/someone prtng to buddhabauddhe
somewhere else(, from) alanmeṃ
sonsoy
son, prtng to .säsūwerṣṣe
son (dear)soṃśke, säsuśkañ
sons, the two youngsaiwiśkane
songśarka
soothedsänmetstse
sorrowmāntsalñe, mentsi, lakle
sorrowfulmentsissu
sorrowful, bemänts-
sortprakār
soothe (?)1tär-
soulāñme2, cetaṃ
soundweśeñña, klene
sound (i.e., free from disease) . nirjvare
soundlesssnai-weśeññai
soupyuṣ
sour gruelkāñci
southomotruññai
southernomotruññaiṣṣe, dakṣiṇāpat
souvenirepyacäññe
sovereigntykamartāññe
sow (seeds)kät-, sār(y)-
sowersārantsa
spanraso
sparrow-hawk (?)ṣparā-yäkre
spatterpränts-
speakwe-
speak/utter (?)päs-
speak hostilelyskär-
speakerweñenta
speaking, manner ofupacār
specialtu-yknesa
special ground marked for ceremonymaṇḍāl
specialistśāstrajñe
species, the threetärkaṭuka
speculationvitark
speechplāce, welñe
speech, bad or vulgar (?) apaśabdh
spell (as in cast a spell)nässait
spend [time] spārtt-
Sphaeranthus hirtusnicitakāmp
sphere of indifference .upekṣopavicār
sphere of religiondharmadhātu
sphere or object of the minddharmāyataṃ
spheres of desire, prtng to kāmāvacaräṣṣe
spideryape
spiderling, redpunarnap
spike laur
spikedtsänkarwaṣṣe
spikenardputnakeśi
spin2nāsk-
spiritcitt, palsko
spirit (benevolent)yākṣe
spirit (malevolent)prete
spiritualpalskoṣṣe, caitasike
spiritual knowledgebra(h)m
spiritual knowledgeparamārth
spiritual powers, poss. the five highestpañcābhijñe
spiritual (those who are)pälskotstse
spittlepitke
splendidpeñyatstse
splendidpärsantaṃṣṣe
splendorlyūke, peñiyo, pernerñe
splitwāk-
split (?)śäp-
split apartwāk-
split offkaut-
spokepuwe
spontaneouslysnai pārna
sport (?)kritāṃ
spot (come to see)läk-
spottanākko, ruwe
spots (?)pikṣanma
spreadsätkor
spread (by throwing)kärsk-
spread (out)sätk-
spread out/apart (?)2tär-
spring (of water)ālme
sprinklepärs-
sproutkärk-3, auks-
sprout and stalkakwam-pere
sprouts (of plants) tsäṅkana
spur (on)wārw-
spurringwārwäṣṣeñca
spypälkostau
squatting positionparlyānk(a)
squeezemely-, nusk-, klup-
squintingyuṣe
stability (?)stemye
stag karse
stagnant klyemo
stain (?)ruwe
stalk -pere
stamenkesār
stammeringkärstautstse
stanchsai-n-
stand (intr.)käly-
stand stillkäly-
standing klyemo
starścirye
starvemätsts-
stateavasth, bhūmi
statewe-
state of neither consciousness or
unconsciousnessaivasaṃjñāṃ
statement prajñapti
station in lifeymīye
station in life fixed by birth yoni
stationary awāskatte
stay (vb.)käly-, ṣäm-, walāk-
stay (n.)sāk
stay awaypräṅk-
steadfast prakrauñetstse, eprete, kwants
steadfastnessepretäññe
steadinesspopok
steady ṣekaññe, śceścämo-
stealkälyp-, kärk-1
stealer kälpaṣṣuki, kärkauca
steervr̥ṣe
step forward/forthtep-
step downkārp-
step ontāsk-
step (footstep)ṣiko
step- (?)wteṣṣe
steward (?)ṣṭalāṣṭe
stick (n.)śakāto
stick (vb.)treṅk-, tsu-
stiffpanku
stigma (plant)patso
still (adj.)ām
still (adv.)yak, yaka, ykāk, nänok
stir (up) (?)kuk-1
stir mänt-
stir(ring) wāsko
stomachkātso, tso (?)
stonekärweñe
stoolkwaräṣ(e)
stopmauki
stoptäṅk-
stoptärk-1
stop (intr.)spārtt-
stop to, put akrämp-
stopped up, beprutk-
story of a buddha’s previous incarnationjātak
story (sacred)śruti
strain (the ears)pil-
strange aletstse
strangeness aletsñe
strangerlaukito
stratagemupāy
streaksälyiye, bhakti
streamtseñe
-stream (in up-stream, down-stream) -wär
streetnaunto
strengthmaiyyo, prakrauñe warkṣäl, tsirauñe
strengthening (?)auksent-
strengthening particlek(ä), rai
stretchpänn-, pil-
stretcherpännauca
strew (to some purpose)kät-
strifeśalna
strife (with), ineweta
strikeaun-, tsop-, kärn-
strike (downwards)pyāk-
strike (apart) käsk-
strike downkau-
strikingpyākälyñe, kekkarnor
stringśerkw
striveskai-
strive (sexually) foryäs-
strive forlāl-, yätk-
strive forcefullyspālk-
strivinglaliye
strongrätkware, prakrauñetstse maiyyātstse, maiyyāu, kwäntsaññe
stropheślok
struggle (n.)weta
struggle (vb.)wät-
studyāklyilñe, akalye, aklyilñe
stumbletrāpp-
stūpapat, yärkemaññe
stūpa, prtng toptamaṣṣe
stupidaknātsa
subject padārth
subjected toekalymi
subjectioneklaymiññe
subjects of knowledge, prtng. tovidyāsthāntaṣṣe
subjugatelāl-
subsection of the waymārgānk
subsequently temeṃ
subsideṣäm-/läm-, spāw- (?)
subside, makemusk-
subsidence (?)muṣṣalñe
subsidiary characteristic (?) anulakṣaṃ
substancedravyi
substituteādeś
succeedyāt-
successphalasaṃpat, sātäṃ
suckletsuk-
suddenlyistak, ramer, teteka
sufferwärp-, lakle läk-
suffer the loss ofmänk-
suffering (adj.)läklessu
suffering (n.)lakle
suffusesnätk-
sugarśakkār
sugar-cane ikṣṣu
suit (?)tep
suitableayāto
suitable, beritt-
sullylup-, yäsk-?, wämp-
sumutpat
sum up wälts-
summitmrāce, tarne, tsaṅkär
summerṣmīye
summer-timeṣmāyana preściyañ
sunkauṃ, kauṃ-ñäkte, mittär
sun-crystal, prtng tosūryakāṃtṣe
sunrisekauṃ-parki
(sun-)risepirko
sunsetkauṃ-yaptsi
superintendent (monastic school) māṭhare
superiorśpālmeṃ, śpālu, olyartse
superioritypruccamñe, wāki oṃṣap=tatākar
supernatural being, kind of vidyādhare
supportniśrai, pānto, saim
support and refugesaim-wäste
support oneselfsai-n-
supposition vitark
suppository (?)ṣpakīye
suppressionkselñe
suppression (of pain) nirodha, prutkālñe
suppression of considerationpratisaṃkhyānirot
supremacypāramit
surelynai, nemce, nemcek
surety (?)weretemaṣṣe
surfaceānte
surpassṣärk-, yuk-
surplus atirek
surrender prahāṃ, rilläññe
surroundwāl-, wārp-
suspicionersankäññe
sustenanceāhār
sustenance-sūtra āhārasūtar
sūtrasūtär
swallownuk-
swamp kärkkālle
swastika (denoting good luck)svastik
swearing (?)ṣāro
sweat (vb.)2si-
sweat (n.)syelme
sweat(ing)syālñe
sweepli-
sweetswāre
sweet flag okaro (?), vaca
sweetnessswaraññe
swellplätk-, staukk-
swellingyweru, iweru, pittāk
swelling at the temple . .tranto-naitwe
swift-movingslakkare
swimnāsk-1
swimmingeplyuwai
swollen träntātstse
swooningmurc
swordapsāl, kertte
syllableakṣār
sympatheticañmālaṣke añmālaṣlñeṣṣe, karuṇīke
sympathyañmalāṣṣälñe, añmālaṣle añmalaṣkaññe, karuṃ
Symplocos racemosa, a kind ofśabaralodär
Symplocos racemosaloträ
  
• Ś •
śāstra, one learned in theśāstrajñe
śarabha (a mythical animal)śarabhe
śastra-age, prtng to theśastrakālpaṣṣe
ślokakrānt
  
• T •
takeenk-
take (away)sāmp-
take by the handṣarsa eṅk-
take careaiśai yām-
take care ofaiśai yām-, yärp-
take control ofadhiṣṭhit yām-
take control ofräṅk-
take couragetsārw-
take for oneselfai- [MP]
take hearttsārw-
take notice of aiśaisa mäsk-
take offrutk-, 1mlutk-
take pity onwärs-1
take uppär-
taken (from this world), betsälp-
talkplāce, welñe, weñiye
talkerweṣṣuki
tameyāt-
tameryātäṣṣeñca
tarkhan (Turkish title)tārhkaṇe
tarrysuk-, walāk-
tasteśūke
tasty śuketstse
tasty, not veryyakte-swāralñe
tathāgatatu-yknesāk-kekamu
tautprākre
tautological speaker (?) .ekārthavācake
tax-grains śwelyāṅk
tax(es)pauśye
teachākl-, ṣärp-, en-, kärs-
teacheraśari, käṣṣī, upādhyāve
teachingenäṣṣälñe, aklaṣṣälñe, akalye
teaching (authoritative)śāsaṃ
tearkärst-
tear down nitt-
tear (out) [normally toward the agent]sälk-
tear out (flesh, etc.)pāss-
tear out/offräss-
tear to piecestrus-
tearsakrūna
tears, wipe awayli-
technique (?)spārtto
tellwe-, 1āks-
templedevakul
temple (of the head)naitwe
temptationskeye
ten millionkoṭ
ten thousandt(u)māne
ten (pl. decades)śak
ten, byśkār
tend (naturally) toyu-
tendencyrmamñe
tenderlalaṃṣke, cäñcare
tenderness cäñcarñe
tendril (creeping)śkwarya
tenthśkante
Teramnus labialismāṣavarṇi
Terminalia arjunaarjuṃ-stām
Terminalia chebulaarirāk
terminatekärst-
terrestrialkenätstse
terribleempelye
terror iwate
testklep-
testicle*erk
textkrānt
that (one)samp
that is to saykuce tu
that (so)kuce
thesu
theaterrānk
theftlykuññe2, atāttadāṃ
thenentwe, ṅke, nai, no, taka, temeñce, tumeṃ
then (temporal and final)ot
theological position, person of aagamadhare
thereompe, tane
thereby tanneṃ
there, at that placeomp
there, in that placeomte
thereaftertu-postäṃ, postanmeṃ
therebytusa
there-concerningtanneṃ
thereforetesa, wa, taise(ṃ), taisu
therefromtumeṃ
thereintune
thereoftentse
thereovertesa
thereto tanneṃ
thereuponentwe, tumeṃ, tu-yparwe tw-auñentai, tw-ompostäṃ
therewith tempa, tumpa
thickātstse
thick, become (?)stu-
thickness of witsātstse
thieflyak
thighmärkwace, mlyuwe
thingwäntare, wāstu
thing producedutpat
think aboutpälsk-
thinkerpälskauca
thinkingmaim, palskalñe
thirdtrite
third time, for thetritesa
thirsttr̥ṣṇ, yokiye
thirstyyokaitse, keścye
thirsty for alcoholmotä-yokaiṃ
thirty täryāka
thirty-three gods, thetapatriś
thisse, sek, seṃ
this oneteṃ, tu
thistle, East Indian globenicitakāmp
thongyatwe
thorn-apple fruitmadanaphal
thorny groundtsakātstse
thorough snai-lyipär
those to be (religiously) trained vaineye
thoutuwe
thoughno
thought citt, īme, maim, palskalñe, palsko
thoughtful palskossu
thousandyaltse
thrash aboutspālk-
threadñare, oppīloñ
threat (?)kastuna
threatennu-, skär-
three trai
three thousand . .taryyältse
three-foldtäryā-yäkne
three-hour time-periodprahar
thrill of delighttsārwo
thriveparāk-
throat (internal)ṣaṅkw
throat (both internal and external)kor
throneasāṃ, siṃhāsaṃ
throwkärsk-, säl-2, 2lup-
throw away aul-
throw downsäl-2
throw forward aul-
throw offsäl-2
throwing away aulñe
thrust forward aul-
thrust/push (away)nätk-
thullaccaya-offence .stulāṃ-träṅko
thumb (?)mokoc(e)
thumb-print, as mark of authenticationkapci
thunderboltwājrä, waśīr
thusmant, taiknesāk, taisa, te-mant tesa, tu-yknesa, tusa, tusāk, te-ramt
thyciṣṣe, taññe
tie (something) into a bundleś(c)änm-
tiger, malemewiyo
tiger, femalemewiya
tileiścem
till täṅktsi
time lyakur, preśc(i)ya, preke, presto (?)
time for action (of a buddha)ekṣalye
time, an incalculably longasaṃkhyai
time, period of preke
timely (?)prekeṣṣe
Tinospora cordifoliakuruci
Tinospora cordifolia, leaf ofamprätapātär
tirelāl-, 2kuk- (?)
tirelessalālatte
to and froorkäntai
todaykomtak, ñerwe
together (with)ṣesa, eṣe, ślek
together, alleṣemeṃ, aiksnar
together, as preposition/adverbṣe
tollwaṣik
tonguekantwo
tongue, littlekäntwāśke
toolyāntär, upāy
toothkeme
toptsaṅkär
top of headmrāce
top-knot uṣṇīr
torch (?)parśiye
torment (vb.)krās-
torment (n.)krāso
tortoisekaccāp
torture (n.)pälśalñe
torture (vb.)pälk-3, tsärk-
totallyysamo, ysomo
touchsparś
touch (vb.)täk-
touch (with the hands) (vb.) klep-
touch (n.)takälñe, tetekor
touch-foodsparśāhār
towardsaiwol, etsuwai, tsuwai, mante
towerkucatāk
town rīye
town-dwellerapṣatrike
trace weswe
trade karyor
traderkäryorttau, sārthavāhe
tradingmisko
training, no longer in need of .aśaikṣe
trancesamādhi
trance, kind ofvajropame
tranquilsänmetstse
tranquilitymaimatsäññe, prasāt
tranquility, prtng to (?)śamaṣṣe
transgresskätk-1
transgressorkätkemane
transientanityä, kṣaṇik
transitorinessmā-ṣekaññe
translate ritt-
transversely akṣnai
travel (n.)ytārye
travel (vb.)i-, iyā-
traveler ynūca, ytaritstse
traversekätk-1
traversableaiñye
traversable only one at a time somw-aiñye
tread on tāsk-
treasurer yirmakka
treat asyām-
treat (of)aiśai yām-
treat (medically)yām-
treat badly.appamāt yām-
treasuryyasna
treestām
tree, a kind ofampalakkesar
trefoil, thornytaram
tremblewāsk-/wäsk-
trial (?)prekṣale
Tribulus terrestris klyoto
tribute neske, pautke, waṣik
tricktsereññ-
trickerykuhākäññe
trickle (?)sum-, käls-
trifle (?)pits
Trigonella corniculatacorak, sprīk
Trigonella foenum-graecumśaḍi
trip (n.)mitalñe
trip (vb.)trāpp-
trouble (n.)tsärśalñe
trouble (vb.)wālts-
trough kaice
trueempreṃ, emprentse
trulyauspa
trunk (of an elephant)śuṇḍ/śuñc
trust (vb.)päkw-, spänt-
trust (n.)päkwalñe, perākäññe
trust inspänt-
trustfulspäntaitse
trustfulnessspäntaitsñe
trustingperāk, perāktse
trustinglyspantai
trustworthyśraddhiye
truthempreṃ, emprentsäññe
truth, highestparamārth
truth, one who sees highestparamārthadarśī
tub kaice
tube lyitkw
tuberculosisśoṣ
tubeflowerbhārk
tubesstmānma
tumorkwarm
tunekene
turban (?)cāro-korśo
turmericharidär
turnklautk-, klutk-, wärt-, spārtt-
turn to/towards aiw-
turn, take alyakur yām-
turn up the soilrāp-
turn (someone/something) intoklutk-
turned toward, beaiw-
turningklautkäṣlyñe, klautkalñe spārtṣlñe, wrene (wrete?)
turpethtärvärta
turtlekaccāp
tuṣitas, prtng to . .toṣitäṣṣe
tuskāṅkär
twelveśak-wi
twentiethikante
twenty ikäṃ
twilightsānti
twist aroundtärk-2
twistedtarkänt-
twowi
two, by wyār
two (parts) eachywarcār
two-footedwi-pewaṃ
two mileskroś
towardswrantsai
Typha augustifolia (?)śar
  
• U •
uglyyolai-erepate, yolo
ugly, make (?)wämp-
ulcerdvivräṇi
ulcers or wounds, technique fordvivräṇikalp
ulterior motivestarstwa
ultimate akessu
ultimate endsparkālye āke
umbrellakṣatre
un-e(n)-2
unachievingenkälpatte
unagitatedakṣobhe
unassembled akraupatte
unbearableekaltte
unbelief aprasāt
unbelieveraśrāddhe
unchangeableanklautkatte
unchangeablenessniyam
unchangingṣekaññe
uncheckedetankätte
uncleanliness akappi
uncombinedakraupatte
unconcernempälkattäññe
unconcernsnai-meṃtsñe
unconcernedempalkaitte
unconcernedly (?)sreppe
uncontrolledawlāwätte
uncuttableenkärstātte
undecayingakṣai, muskalñetstse
underettesa, ñor
under or lower (of garments)antariye
under(neath)maṃtstsaś
undergowärp-
understandkärs-, eṅk-
understanding kärsor, plāksar, abhisamai
undrainableamaukatte
undyingamārraṣṣe
unenlightened state .präthagjaññe
unfathomedsnai-ptsa
unfit to be touched or handled duralaṃba
unfortunateläklessu, tallāw
unfoundedatākatte
unfriendlyeñcare, erkatte, erkatñetstse
unfruitful groundatāmo
ungivenanāyätte
ungovernable awlāwätte
ungratefulakr̥tajñe
unguentlaupalñe, laupe
unhappyläklessu, tallāw
unheardenklyauṣätte
unheedingempalkaitte
unhinderedetaṅkätte
unificationṣemetsñe
uninvitedakākatte, amplākätte
unityṣemetsñe
unjustsnai-pele
unknownanaikte
unlawfulsnai-pele
unmoved (?)akṣobhe
unnoticed anaikätte
unobserved annihilation apratisaṃkhyānirot
unordainedanupasaṃpanne
unordered (?)aitkatte
unpleasant anaiwatstse, eñcare, mā-ayāto
unpleasantness anaiwatsñe
unprecedentedkwärkwäññe
unpunishabilityanāpatti
unrelatedaletstse
unrelatedness alletsñe
unreliabilityompakwättäññe
unreliableempakwatte
unrestrainedawlāwätte
unripemāme
unripenessmamauñe
unruly awlāwätte
unsatisfiedontsoytte
unsplittableakautatte
unsubdued ayātaitstse
unsulliedtakarṣke, aiskatte (?)
untamableayātaitstse
untileṃṣke
untotsuwai
untrueatākatte
untrustworthiness . .ompakwättäññe
untrustworthyempakwatte
untruthwaṣe
unturnedeṣpirtatte
unwanted anaiwatstse
unwelcomeeñcare
unwiseśle-aiśamñetstse
unworkedayāmätte
unworriedempalkaitte
unworthymā-aṣāṃ
upkauc
up toeṃṣke, täṅktsi, tsuwai
upholdtäl-
upperauṣämiye, śariye
upper (dwelling at a higher altitude) (?)ortonāk
upper roomkwrakar
upset, bekrās-
upstreamkaucū-wär
upwardsmante
Uraria lagopoidespr̥śnaparṇi
urgenärs-, nätk-, wārw-
urgedmakamo
urgently ñatke
urgingnetke
urgingwārwäṣṣeñca
urging, byeñatketste
urinary diseasepramek
urination (?)śontsauñe
urinemiśo
use (n.)paribhog, prayok
use (vb.)yaukk-
use of, byeraitwe
useful (?)pruccamo
using the same seat .ekāsanikäññe
utensilspariṣkār
utmost (thing) (?)ustama
uttertärk-1
utterance, solemn but joyous pelke, udāṃ
  
• V •
vacillation anityāt
vaibhāṣika-sect, member of thevaibhāṣike
vaiśya (a caste division)vaiśye
vajropama-trance vajropämo-samādhiṣṣe
valerian, Indian (?)takaru
Valeriana wallichii (?)takaru
valley leṅke
Vanda roxburghiikleṅkarya, rāsnā
vanity (?)aikäruṣa
vanquish yuk-
variegatedviciträ
vault of heavenānte iprentse
vedaved
vegetable (??)kontace(e)
vehemenceairṣaitsñe
vehement airṣaitstse
vehicle (of arriving at knowledge) kleṅke
veilwāl-
veins and arteries marmanma
velvet beanātmaguptaphal
venerable (man)sthavire
venerateyärs-
veneration yarke
verdigrispilkeṣṣe kentse
verificationsatyakār
Vernonia anthelminthicasumarāś
vertigowaipalau
veryśatkai/śitkai, lau, olyapotstse taṅki, tsamo2, eśatkai
very (with adverbs of motion)ka
very muchmāka
vesselbhājaṃ, bhräṅkār, lwāke kunti, kuntipāśaṃ
vessels (of the body)marmanma
vestments of a Buddhist monktrīcīwär
vetiveruśir, nalat
Vetiveria zizanioidesnalat
Vetiveria zizanoides, root ofwśīrä
vex krās-
vexationerkattäññe, krāso
vicinity (??)aśäkwa
victoryyukalñe
viewpilko
viewing ompostäṃ-palkalyñe
Vigna mungoturani
vigorous maiyyātstse
vileness ainakñe
villagekwaṣo
vinelaitke, śkwarya
vinegar cukr
vinegar, distilledcukkrikäṣṣu
vintnermallāntsa
violence akwatsäññe, warkṣäl
violent(ly)räskare
virtuekärtsauñe
virtue, the side ofkuśalapākṣ
virtueskrentauna
virtuouskrentaunatstse, krent-pelaikne
visiblelkālle, pākre (?)
visible dimension/spherelkālñe-yärm
visionlkātsi
visionarynermite
visitläk-
vital fluidyot
vitiligoświtär
vitriol of copperrasaṃcanaṃ
voiceweśeñña, wek
voice (in the sense of ‘ability to speak’) kantwo
voicelesssnai-weśeññai
voluntarily perma
vowwrat
vulgar ainake
vulgar person (?)paścimike
vulgarity ainakñe
vulturesayusa
  
• W •
waft wlāsk-
wagonkleṅke, kokale
wagon, go byklāṅk-
wagon, smallkokalyiśke
wagon-master amäkṣpänte, kokalpänta
wagon-travelerkokaletstse
wakenāks-2
walkingynamo
wallpoṣiya
wander (of the mind)wäks-
wandering gaze, one with waskamo-pilkotstste
wanekul-
wantpäk-2
want of energyalāsäññe
wanting (things)wäntreśśe
wanting añmassu
war, art of weta-watalyñe
warmemalle
warp (?)sarki
warriorkṣatriye, wetāu
warrior, quality of being a (?)kṣatriññe
washlik-
washinganuwasāṃ, laiko (?)
washing awaylaikalyñe
wastepälkiye
watch, period ofprahar
watchful careparihār
waterāp, war
water-millwar-waltsiye
water particleabraji
water-carrier udhiharake
water-dipper (?)seme
waterfowl, a kind ofyāmuttsi
water lily, bluenilutpāl
waterskin (?)watsālo
wax śeriye, klautke, teri, yakne ymīye, yoñiya, ytārye, pele
way or path (pointed out by Buddha)mārg
way, in thistek-yäknesa
way, out of theytārimeṃ
wayfarerytaritstse
wewes
wealth itauñe
wealthy ekaññetstse, waipeccetstse
weak yäkt-āñm
weak (unable to stand)ylāre
weakness, attacks ofleswi
weapon, cuttingyepe
wearpär-, wäs-1, twānk-
wearing ragspāṃsukulike
weavewāp-
weaverwapātstsa
web (spider’s)wpelme
web between the fingerssopiye
Wedelia calendulaceaprankarac
weekṣuk(t)-kauṃ
weighkeś tā-
weightkrāmär
weightykramartstse
welfarekartse, yṣwarkaññe
wellkuśal
well-beingkuśalasāsrap
well-formedersnāssu
well-measuredyärmaṃssu
westkauṃ-kläsko
wetwaiw-
wether (sheep or goat)alāw
wetness (?)karītsñe
whatkuce
what is to be done and not donekāryakāryatstsaññe
what kind ofintsu
whateverintsu, kuse-ra-tsa-ksa makā-ykne, kuce-tasemanetstse
whatever form, ofmäkte-yaknesa
whatever means, bykuce-yknesa
whatever way, bykuce-yknesa
wheatysāre
wheatenysārñe
wheelcākkär, yerkwanto
wheel of the lawdharmacākkär
wheel-rimyerter
when krui
wheneverente, inte, kwri, ente ente
when(ever)mäkceu preke
whereente, kutameṃ
where(ever)mäkceu ike
whey (?)śärselle
whichintsu, kuce, mäksu
whilemäkte
while travelingmasār
whipyatwe
whisper (?)klautsaine päs-
whiteārkwi, arkwaññaṣṣe
whitenessarkwiññe
whokuse, mäksu
whoever(po) kuse
who(m)everkuse-ra-tsa-ksa
who, no matterkuse
who, the onekuse
who, thosekuse
wholeheartedly po āñmtsa
whomkuce
whom, forket
whom, toket
whomever, forket-ra
whomever, toket-ra
whoseket
whosoeverket-ra
whykā, kāttsi
wickednessduścarit
wideaurtstse
widelyemparkre
wifeśana
wildcolye
will käryāñ
willing ārwer
willingly perma
win kallau
wind (n.)yente
wind (vb.)wänt-
windowpatstsānk
winecagala, kuñi-mot
wipe awayli-
wisdomaiśamñe
wisdom, having threefoldtraividye
wisdom, seat ofpastäṃ (s.v. paśce)
wise (one)aiśamo, aiśaumye
wish (n.)āñme1, akālk
wish (vb.)añmaññ-
withśale
with great careersänk
with regard topälkormeṃ
Withania somniferaaśvakant, yärper
witherklaiks-
withineneṃ, eneṅka, epiṅkte
withoutsnai
without neglect snay-emprukṣai
without sensesanindri
without talkingyäkte-weśeññai
witness (n.)reme, sākṣi (?)
witness (vb.) reme yām-
woeful pälwālñeṣṣe
wolfwalkwe
womanśana, klīye
woman cowherder (?)govika
wombkātso, kaläl, kukṣi
wonderāktekaññe, paryari, pratihari
wonderfulākteke
woodor
woodedwärtoṣṣe
woodenoraṣṣe
woodpecker (?)kautstse
woodswartto
woofsarki
woolyok2
wordplāce, reki
word of indicationupakṣepapadak
words, artificial arrangement ofkrānt
workkrānt
work (n.)lāṃs
work (vb.)lāṃs-
work (e.g. wood)tärk-2
workerkapyāre
working, mark ofkriyālakṣaṃ
worldśaiṣṣe
world of three spherestraidhātuk
world-cycle kālp
world rulercakravārt
world rulership, prtng tocakravārttiññe
world rulership; world kingshipcakravartti-lantuññe
world-guardian, prtng to (?)vairuḍiṣṣe
wormyel, peṣele, peṣte (?)
worm-ridden (?)peṣteu (?), yelyitstse
wormwood, commonnāgapaträ
wormyyelyitstse
worship (vb.)winā-sk-
worship (n.)wināṣṣälñe
worthkare
worthlessness snai-ynāñmäññe
worthyaṣāṃ, perneu, pernetstse
worthy (one)aṣanīke, dakṣiṇāke
worthy of, beārc-
wound (n.)dvivräṇi, pīle
wound (vb.)mil-, aun-
wound caused by biting (or weapon)ādañc
wound, openkoyñi
woundedpilentatstse
wrestlemesk-
Wrightia antidysenterica, seed ofvatsakabīja
wrinkles, facial (?)säṅkīñ
wrist (?)āto
writepik-
writingpaikalñe
wrong (vb.)appamāt yām-
wrong (adj./n.)yolo
wrongly akṣnai
  
• X •
Xanthium indicamahāmet
  
• Y •
yawnkāy-
yearpikul
years old-pikwalaññe
yeast (?) räṅkāñi
yes (?)ce
yellowtute
yield (produce)er-
yogiyogācāre
yokepyorye
youyes
youngmaiwe
young of an animal (?)ṣaiyyiśke
youthkālyśke, kiśore, maiwe
youth (abstract n.)maiwäññe
youthfulmalyak(k)e
  
• Z •
zealskeye, spelkke, āk1
zealot tikṣne
zealousetsarkälletstse skeyessu, spelkkessu
zealously +/-etsarkälle
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