Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages

Edited by: Michiel de Vaan

Latin is one of the major ancient Indo-European languages and one of the cornerstones of Indo-European studies. Since the last comprehensive etymological dictionary of Latin appeared in 1959, enormous progress has been made in the reconstruction of Proto-Indo-European, and many etymologies have been revised. This new etymological dictionary covers the entire Latin lexicon of Indo-European origin. It consists of nearly 1900 entries, which altogether discuss about 8000 Latin lemmata. All words attested before Cicero are included, together with their first date of attestation in Latin. The dictionary also includes all the inherited words found in the other ancient Italic languages, such as Oscan, Umbrian and South Picene; thus, it also serves as an etymological dictionary of Italic.

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Michiel de Vaan (Ph.D. 2002) teaches comparative Indo-European linguistics, historical linguistics and dialectology at Leiden University. He has published extensively on Germanic, lbanian, and Indo-Iranian linguistics and philology, including The Avestan Vowels (2003) and Germanic Tone Accents (ed., 2006).

INTRODUCTION

1. Aim of this dictionary

This book is not a complete etymological dictionary of Latin. Its main aim ­­is to describe which roots and stems of the vocabulary of Latin and the other Italic languages are likely to have been inherited from Proto‑Indo‑European. In addition, two sources of loanwords in Latin have been taken into consideration: possible loanwords from Sabellic (cf. Rix 2005: 566‑572), and probable loanwords from unidentifiable, but possibly old (Mediterranean) donor languages (cf. Cuny 1910, Biville 1990 II: 501‑504).

This approach implies the exclusion of those Latin words which are certainly or probably loanwords from known, non‑Italic languages, such as Celtic, Etruscan, Germanic, Greek, and Semitic. The loanwords from Celtic are discussed by Porzio Gernia (1981: 97‑122), who gives a full list of certain or probable loanwords from Celtic. The Etruscan loanwords are more difficult to establish; see Breyer 1993, Whatmough 1997, and Briquel 1999. The number of Greek loanwords in Latin is very high, the Greek influence lasting from before the earliest Latin inscriptions until after the end of the Roman Empire. See Saalfeld 1884 for a full (though antiquated) collection, and Biville 1990 for a linguistic study of Greek loanwords. Many of the Semitic loanwords have entered Latin through Greek; a study of the Semitic loanwords in Greek is Masson 1967.

I also exclude from the discussion all onomastic material of Latin and Sabellic, with a few exceptions.

2. Definition of Italic

I distinguish the following three branches of Italic: Sabellic, Latino‑Faliscan, and Venetic. It is disputed whether Venetic is in fact an Italic language or stems from a different Indo‑European branch which happens to be attested close to the other Italic languages (Untermann 1980: 315f., Prosdocimi 1988: 418‑420). The number of interpretable Venetic forms is small, but they allow a connection with Latin and Sabellic (van der Staaij 1995: 193‑210); in order to facilitate further research in this direction, I therefore include Venetic. Following Weiss (fthc.a), I give the following overview of the Italic languages known at present:

  1. Sabellic (from the 7th c. BC)
  2. 1. Oscan (5th – 1st c. BC)

       Oscan tribes:  Samnites (Samnium, Campania)

                                Paelignians, Vestinians, Marrucinians (North‑Oscan)

                                Frentanians, inhabitants of Larinum and Teanum Apulum

                                Hirpinians

                                Hernicans

                                Siculians (Eastern Sicily)

    2. Umbrian (7th – 1st c. BC): Umbria, northern Latium

       2a. Palaeo‑Umbrian, Volscian, Marsian, Aequian

       2b. Iguvine Tables (3rd – 1st c. BC)

    3. South‑Picene (6th – 4th c. BC): central Adriatic coast

    4. Pre‑Samnite (6th – 5th c. BC): Campania, Bruttium, Lucania

  3. Latino‑Faliscan

    1. Latin (from the 6th c. BC): Latium

    2. Faliscan (7th – 2nd c. BC): the town of Falerii, 50 km north of Rome

  4. Venetic (ca. 550‑100 BC): northeastern Italy

For the purpose of this book, Messapic (southeastern Italy) is not counted as an Italic language, and its vocabulary has been excluded from the dictionary. The interpretation of the extant Messapic inscriptions is too unclear to warrant the inclusion of Messapic in any Indo‑European subfamily. There are obvious onomastic links with other Italic languages and possible lexical ties with Albanian (see Matzinger 2005), but Messapic offers no independent evidence for words of PIE origin.

3. Research method

It is a cliché that every word has at least ten etymologies. Due to the long time span between Proto‑Indo‑European and Latin (2500 years for the oldest inscriptions, nearly 3000 years for the main body of literature), and the phonetic changes which took place in that period, we cannot be sure about the exact trajectory which even the most common Indo‑European words have taken. Rather than right or wrong, the etymologies in this book must be regarded as points on a scale: some might approach relative certainty and have no competing etymologies beside them, whereas others represent just one among a number of etymologies that 3000 years of formal and semantic change render theoretically possible. For instance, it will be agreed upon by virtually all specialists that Latin negating in‑ ‘un‑’ directly continues PIE *n‑ in compounds (even if it would be hard to agree on a single complete lexical correspondence shared by Latin and at least two other branches of IE). The verb videō, to mention another example, will probably be derived from the PIE root *uid‑, which also surfaces as *ueid‑ and *uoid‑, by all Indo‑Europeanists. But details of their reconstructions may differ: some colleagues would write *wid‑, and some reconstruct the root‑final stop as *[ˀt]. Discussion of the present suffix Latin ‑ē‑ and the form of the perfect vīdī would bring to the surface still more differences between specialists. Many words have a much less certain etymology, for instance cōleī ‘testicles’: it could be derived from cōlum ‘sieve’, which would be formally satisfactory but semantically not immediately convincing, or from culleus ‘bag’, which suffers the reverse handicap: semantically evident, but formally not so. In a case like cōleī, more than with in‑ or videō, the assumptions and convictions of the individual researcher play a decisive role. In all cases, the reader must take into account that I adopt a certain systematic conception of Proto‑Indo‑European and the subsequent linguistic stages leading on to Latin (see below for their justification), which naturally influence the etymological solutions I eventually prefer.

An important article on the method of etymological research in general, and on Latin etymology in particular, was written by Eichner 1992. Here follow his main recommendations and a justification of my approach to them.

1. An etymological discussion should preferably give access to “die volle Fachdiskussion” (p. 61).

The scope of the present book and the limited amount of time that was available made full compliance with this requirement impossible. Complete reference to earlier scholarship would have taken many more years, and the printed version of this dictionary would have become far too heavy and too expensive. Earlier etymological research on Latin has been evaluated by Forssman 1983, while Forssman 2002 has discussed etymology in the TLL. The two main works of references for Latin etymology since the 1960s have been the dictionaries of Walde & Hoffmann (1930‑1954) on the one hand, and of Ernout & Meillet (1959, with some corrections in the 1967 edition) on the other. Other etymological dictionaries that preceded WH and EM are Vaniček (1881), Regnaud (1908), Muller (1926), Tucker (1931), Juret (1942). Of these, I have only consulted Muller’s study occasionally.

For the purpose of the present dictionary I have consistently made use of WH and EM, who normally summarize the pre‑1960 scholarship. Therefore, I usually refrain from quoting literature from before 1960. Each of the two dictionaries mentioned has its advantages and its drawbacks. WH provide a reliable indication of the first attestation of a Latin word in the Latin literature. Subsequently, they present an exhaustive and well‑referenced overview of earlier proposals, usually including a long list of cognate forms in other IE languages. Unfortunately, their own opinion on the etymology of a word is usually stated without any explanation, and must be searched in a thicket of words. The dictionary of EM often gives a useful account of the inner‑Latin word history. They evaluate the semantic shifts which a word underwent, and how it relates to other Latin lexemes. Their etymological discussion, however, is disappointingly short and very often remains agnostic even in cases where their contemporaries held clear views.

For Sabellic, I have relied on Untermann 2000 for the meaning and etymology of words. Since Untermann provides full references to earlier literature, I do not indicate the authorship of different etymologies for Sabellic words, unless their discussion contributes to specific issues. Untermann’s dictionary displays a great deal of skepticism towards the possibility of knowing the meaning and etymology of many Sabellic words. I have often adopted his agnosticism about the precise meaning of a word, while at the same time retaining the etymological explanation given for it by other contemporary specialists of the Sabellic languages, if a communis opinio could be discerned in the literature.

2. On a synchronic level, etymologies should take into account the phonological system of Latin, and, in our case, the other Italic languages.

Since this principle now forms part of every linguist’s toolkit, there is little point in elaborating on it here.

3. A reliable etymological discussion must refer to the relative chronology of sound changes between Proto‑Indo‑European and Latin (termed “Glass‑box‑Verfahren” by Eichner, p. 72).

While this principle is equally uncontroversial, the number of studies elaborating on the relative chronology of more than a few Latin sound changes is small. I have tried to summarize my main guiding principles in the following section.

4. From Proto‑Indo‑European to Latin

4.1 Reconstructable stages

The term ProtoIndoEuropean refers to the last reconstructible common stage from which all known Indo‑European languages have evolved. For the period between PIE and Latin, we can reconstruct several intermediate stages through which the language must have passed. If the IE language family is represented as a traditional genealogical tree of descent, we can regard PIE as the trunk, and Latin as one of the branches; the intermediate stages are nodes between the trunk and the Latin branch. We can distinguish at least the following nodes:

 

Proto‑Indo‑European (also known as Indo‑Hittite): Evidence has recently been accumulated showing that the Anatolian branch was the first of the known IE language to split off PIE; see Rieken 1999, Kloekhorst 2008: 7‑11. In fact, this had already been argued by many scholars, e.g. Sturtevant in the 1920s, Pedersen in 1938, Cowgill in 1974; compare Adrados 2007. Accordingly, it must be decided for every reconstructed feature of ‘traditional’ PIE whether it was present before Anatolian split off, or developed afterwards. Subsequently, we should agree on a common terminology for both stages. Such work has yet to begin on a wider scale, and cannot be done here.

 

(Late) Proto‑Indo‑European: Since only the earliest node in the tree may properly be called PIE, any posterior common stage must be called differently. Thus, the common stage from which all other IE languages except the Anatolian ones descended could be called Late PIE. Nevertheless, in view of the absence of agreement on this matter so far, and in order not to introduce novel and confusing terms, I will in practice use the term PIE to refer to “Late PIE” too.

Proto‑Italic‑Celtic: I acknowledge a separate Italo‑Celtic stage, to which a number of phonetic and morphological developments common to the Italic and Celtic languages can be ascribed. The most recent defense of Italo‑Celtic is by Schrijver 2006: 48‑53 (against Meiser 2003: 36, among others). Here is an eclectic list of the morphological innovations that can be dated to the Italo‑Celtic stage, as given by Schrijver 2006 and Kortlandt 2007: 151‑157:

-          the rise of a superlative suffix *‑ism̥o‑

-          the introduction of gen.sg. *‑ī in the o‑stems (while maintaining *‑osio)

-          the substitution of dat.pl. *‑mus and abl.pl. *‑ios by the ending *‑bhos (while maintaining ins.pl. *‑bhi)

-          the introduction of gen. *‑strom in the 1st and 2nd plural pronouns

-          the spread of *s‑ to the whole paradigm of the *so‑/*to‑pronoun

-          (maybe:) the generalization of abl.sg. *‑(e)d in all declensions

-          the pr. of ‘to be’ is thematic *es‑e/o‑ directly after focussed elements, athematic *es‑ elsewhere (Schrijver 2006: 58)

-          the rise of an injunctive (Kortlandt 2007: 153) or preterite (Schrijver 2006: 60‑62) morpheme *‑ā

-          the rise of sigmatic futures with i‑reduplication (Kortlandt 2007: 152)

-          the spread of the morpheme *‑ro from the 3pl. to other middle endings

Proto‑Italic: The concept of Proto‑Italic has been challenged at various occasions, but agreement seems to be increasing on the view that there was indeed such a common prestage. Recent discussions of this topic, including enumerations of PIt. phonological and morphological innovations, are Rix 1994b, van der Staaij 1995: 193‑210, Heidermanns 2002: 186‑189, Meiser 2003: 27‑36 and Schrijver 2006: 48‑53.

Proto‑Latino‑Sabellic: Most scholars assume that Venetic was the first language to branch off Proto‑Italic, which implies that the other Italic languages, which belong to the Sabellic branch and to the Latino‑Faliscan branch, must have continued for a certain amount of time as a single language. In view of the very small amount of Venetic material available, however, the Proto‑Latino‑Sabellic stage will hardly play a practical role in our discussions.

Proto‑Latino‑Faliscan: Most of the remaining Italic languages belong to the Sabellic branch, the main characteristic of which is the development of labiovelar stops to labials. The only two languages which are not Sabellic are Latin and Faliscan, which were spoken close to each other and differ from the Sabellic languages by a few common innovations (Baldi 1999: 172‑174). Hence, we can reconstruct a common prestage.

4.2 The phonology of Proto‑Indo‑European, Proto‑Italic and Latin

I will use the following reconstruction of the PIE phonological system, based on Beekes 1995: 124. As noted above, at least some of the features reconstructed here might actually belong to the LPIE stage; but since we will be dealing with Italic mainly, this does not affect the discussion to any significant degree.

stops                             p          t           ḱ           k           kw

                                    b          d          ǵ           g          gw

                                    bh        dh        ǵh              gh         gwh

fricatives                                  s

laryngeals                                             h1         h2         h3  

liquids                                       l

                                                r

nasals                           m        n

semivowels                   i           u

vowels                         e           o

                                   ē           ō

For ProtoItalic, I assume the following phonological system (van der Staaij 1995: 66):

stops                           p          t           k           kw

                                   b          d          g          gw

fricatives                     f           þ           χ           χw

                                              s

laryngeals                                             (H)

glides                            w          j

liquids                                       l

                                                r

nasals                           m         n

vowels                         i     ī                                           u    ū

                                                e    ē                  o    ō

                                                                a   ā

diphthongs                  ei                                               oi         ou

                                                               ai         au

Note 1: The series of PIE stops traditionally termed ‘voiced aspirate’ yields voiceless fricatives in word‑initial position in Latin and Sabellic, voiced fricatives word‑internally in Sabellic, and voiced stops (merging with the old voiced stops) word‑internally in Latin. The Latin stops probably go back to voiced fricatives, as is shown by the variant forms of Lat. ab‑ (see s.v.). This points to a complementary distribution of Proto‑Italic voiceless word‑initial fricatives vs. voiced word‑internal ones. In other words, there was one fricative phoneme with two allophones (see Stuart‑Smith 2004: 196‑198, and the critique of her phonemic interpretation by Kortlandt 2007: 150). I will note voiceless fricatives in my PIt. reconstructions, but it seems likely that they were voiced word‑internally. After nasals and sibilants, the PIE voiced aspirates probably did not change into fricatives, but remained stops.

Note 2: Most Italic phonetic developments conditioned by the presence of laryngeals can be dated to the Italo‑Celtic period, or before. The argument given by Schrijver 1991: 454 for the retention of *h3eu‑ as distinct from *ou‑ in PIt. on account of bovem, is and ovis, has been rendered irrelevant by the novel interpretation in Vine 2006a. The different vocalization of PIE sequences *HNC‑ according to which PIE laryngeal these sequences contained (Schrijver 1991: 56‑65) suggests the survival of three different laryngeals until after the Italo‑Celtic period; the vocalization may be an early PIt. development. Another phenomenon ascribed to the presence of consonantal laryngeals in PIt. by Schrijver 1991: 473f. is the preservation of mo‑ in open syllable in mora (I am less convinced about monīle), escaping the unrounding to ma‑. Mora, however, has beside it the verb morāre, in which ‑o might have been restored in PIt. as a characteristic of iterative verbs. As a result, laryngeals will play no role in my PIt. reconstructions. That is not to say that they had all indeed disappeared by the Proto‑Italic period; but I find no certain traces.

Note 3: The main argument against assuming a PIt. shift *eu > *ou is the form Leucesie in the Carmen Saliare (cf. Leumann 1977: 70f., Meiser 1998: 59). This name with its unclear etymology cannot outweigh the remaining evidence in favour of *eu > *ou. In Venetic, some words are attested with <eu> and with <ou>, whereby the older inscriptions only have <ou>. Van der Staaij (1995: 197f.) cautiously suggests that there may have been an inner‑Venetic development ou > eu.

For the sake of reference, I give the following list of the most salient phonological changes which I assume to have taken place between PIE and (the last stage of) Proto‑Italic (van der Staaij 1995: 48‑66, Schrijver 2006). The first number of each section indicates the order in the relative chronology of sound changes, whereas the second digit stakes no such claim.

A. Before Proto‑Italo‑Celtic split up:

1.1 PIE *h1e > *e, *h2e > *a, *h3e > *o

1.2 PIE *eh1 > *ē, PIE *eh2 > *ā, PIE *eh3,*oH > *ō before a consonant

1.3 PIE *iH, *uH > ī, ū before a consonant

1.4 PIE *Tt > *tst (and *‑ddh > *dzd‑?)

2.1 Pretonic shortening of long vowel before resonant (Lat. vir, ferus)

2.2 *uHijV > *wiHjV (pius‑rule)

2.3 *CHC > *CaC

2.4 *CRHC > *CRāC

2.5 *CRHTC > *CRaTC (Italic), *CRHT/s > *CRaT/s (Celtic)

2.6 *RHT/s‑ > *RaT/s‑ (Italo‑Celtic)

2.7 *R̥DC > RaDC (Lat. magnus)

2.8 *CCCC > *CaCCC

B. Before Proto‑Italic split up:

3.1 *tst > *ss

3.2 *CLHV > CaLV‑ (e.g. calēre, valēre, palma)

3.3 *CNHV > [CəNV‑] (e.g. similis, sine, tenuis)

3.4 *HLC‑ > aLC‑ (argentum)

3.5 *h1/2/3NC‑ > e/a/oNC‑ (umbilīcus, ambi)

3.6 *p_(R)kw‑ > *kw_(R)kw‑ (coquō, quīnque)

4.1 *bh, *dh, *gh, *gwh > *b, *d, *g, *gw after *s and *N

4.2 *gh > *g before *l, *r (Lat. glaber, grāmen, trāgula)

4.3 *bh, *dh, *gh, *gwh > *f, *þ, *χ, *χw

4.4 PIE *ouV > *awV in pretonic position (Thurneysen‑Havet‑Vine’s law)

(Lat. lavō etc.)

5.1 *þ‑ > *f‑ (Fal. filea, Lat. filius)

6.1 *fw‑ > *f‑ (Lat. forum, fores)

6.2 *‑gw,χw > *‑w‑ /V_V (Lat. voveo, nūdus)

6.3 *mj > *nj

7.1 *o > a /b, l, m, w, kw_CV (Lat. badius, canem, lacus, lanius, manus, mare)

8.1 *ew > *ow (Lat. novus, moveo)

8.2 *r̥, *l̥ > *or, *ol (Lat. morior etc.)

According to van der Staaij 1995, there is positive evidence that Venetic shared in the following developments: fricativization of PIE ‘voiced aspirates’, *þ‑ > *f‑ (Ven. vhagsto), *ew > *ow and *r̥, *l̥ > *or, *ol. Hence, Venetic did not split off before stage 8.

The phonological developments between Proto-Italic and Old Latin are too numerous to discuss here. For details, I refer to the main handbooks in the field: Sommer 1914, Leumann 1977, Sommer / Pfister 1977, Schrijver 1991, Sihler 1995, Meiser 1998, Baldi 1999, Weiss fthc.a, to name only the best-known English and German works. Also, the relative chronology of the post-PIt. sound changes has not yet been clarified in all details, and would justify a separate study. Hopefully, the present dictionary may contribute to that aim.

For Old Latin, I assume the following phonological system (van der Staaij 1995: 37, Meiser 1998: 52):

stops                             p          t           k           kw

                                     b          d          g          gw

fricatives                        f           s           h

glides                            w          j

liquids                                       l

                                                r

nasals                           m        n

vowels                          i     ī                                           u    ū

                                                e    ē                 o    ō

                                                               a    ā

diphthongs                                                                                              ui

                                      ei      eu                                  oi         ou

                                                               ai         au

As to accentuation, we can posit the following three phases of accent placement (van der Staaij 1995: 65, Meiser 1998: 53):

1. Mobile stress inherited from PIE. The presence of the inherited PIE accentuation in (early) Proto‑Italic is required for Vine’s reformulation (2006) of Thurneysen‑Havet’s Law *ou > *au, which would in his account have taken place in pretonic position. This sound law can be assigned to an early period in the relative chronology of PIt. changes.

2. Word‑initial stress. Word‑initial stress is assumed to have applied in Etruscan and in Latin, Faliscan, and the Sabellic languages. The main Sabellic clues to initial stress are the occurrence of syncope of short vowels in front of word‑final *‑s (Meiser 1986: 59‑62), which may date to the Proto‑Sabellic period, and syncope of word‑internal short vowels in front of single consonants and *‑sC‑ in the different Sabellic languages individually (Benediktsson 1960, Meiser 1986: 131f.). In VOLat., we find syncope of short vowels in final *‑tos, *‑tis, *‑ros, *‑ris, and maybe in final *‑li and *‑ri (Meiser 1998: 73f.). In internal syllables of VOLat., the effects of initial stress are syncope of short vowels in open medial syllable, and weakening (merger) of short vowels and diphthongs in non‑initial syllable. For the Sabellic languages, syncope is dated between 500 and 400 BC by Meiser (1986: 132), and the same period probably saw the start of syncope and weakening in Latin.

3. Penultimate / antepenultimate stress as in CLat. From about 300 BC (thus Radke 1981: 30 on the basis of elephantus and Italia, and in‑ ‘in’), vowel weakening ceased to work in Latin, and we may assume that the accentual system known from CLat. had been established: accent on the penultimate syllable if it was metrically long, otherwise, accent on the antepenultimate syllable.

5. The entries

5.1 Selection of entries

The entries were selected by means of a comparison between the two major etymological dictionaries WH and EM, the comprehensive Indo‑European dictionaries IEW and LIV, and the Oxford Latin Dictionary. I have not done an additional exhaustive search for words attested only in glosses. Since such words are not normally included in the OLD, this implies that only those have been taken into account which are discussed in WH and EM, or in other etymological discussions. Personal names, place names and other toponyms are not included into the present dictionary. A few exceptions are made for names which are widely agreed to be Indo‑European (e.g., Monēta, Nerō), or names for which an alleged Indo‑European etymology must be dismissed (Abella).

5.2 The entries

The entry usually represents the derivationally most opaque member of a Latin word family: a present stem (quoted in the first person singular active), a noun or adjective (in the nominative singular or plural), an adverb or a cardinal numeral. I provide the English meaning of the word as given by the Oxford Latin Dictionary. Since the aim is merely to identify the word in question, not the whole range of meanings of a word is given. I provide the gender and stem type (o, ā, i, u, ē, or a consonant) of nouns, the conjugation (I, II, III, IV) of verbs, or another word type label. I also add deviant forms which do not conform to CLat. morphology of the inflectional or conjugational type given for the entry.

Latin entries are given in bold without a preceding abbreviation. The small number of inherited Venetic and Sabellic entries without cognate forms in Latin is preceded by the abbreviation of the respective language.

5.3 Dating

Between brackets, I indicate in which author or text the word given in the entry is first attested in Latin. A plus (+) after a given author means that the word can be found also in one or more later authors.

The main lexicographical sources for dating the age of a Latin word have been OLD and TLL; yet by means of random comparisons, I found that neither of these sources is exhaustive, and that quite often an older attestation can be found than would appear from TLL and OLD. In most cases, in fact, it turns out that WH are far more reliable. I have therefore turned to concordances of the older inscriptions, Livius Andronicus, Gnaeus Naevius (self‑made) and Plautus (Lexicon Plautinum) in order to ascertain the first date of attestation of a given word. For the remaining words (appearing in Ennius, Cato, Terence or later), I have relied on the data provided by the OLD.

5.4 Derivatives

The section ‘Derivatives’ provides derivatives of the head entry, and other closely related Latin forms. Since the dictionary only has about 1850 Latin entries, the section ‘derivatives’ contains many more Latin lexemes than the section ‘entry’. Any reader familiar with Latin derivation will easily find most of the derivatives under their head entry. In addition, words can be retrieved via the Latin index at the end of the book.

The list of derivatives is restricted to words which make their first appearance before Cicero; in most cases, the last author to precede Cicero is Varro or Lucretius. In this way, the dictionary also provides information about the productivity and semantics of certain suffixes and preverbs in pre‑Ciceronian times. From Cicero onwards, several suffixes become hugely productive while their inclusion into the dictionary would add nothing to our knowledge of OLat. or earlier stages. Only a few words which appear to contain an unproductive suffix, have no synchronic derivational basis, or appear to go back to OLat. for other reasons, are listed even if they first appear in or after Cicero. Some examples are adūlor (Cic.+), bēs (Cic.+), sūbula (Sen.+), taxāre (Sen.+).

      Additional morphological information is given between square brackets, but only when needed to disambiguate two or more categories. The following endings are used as shorthand for their respective categories:

a               f. noun, gen.sg. ‑ae

ae             f.pl. noun, gen.pl. ‑ārum

āx             adj., k‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ācis

‑ēdō           f. noun, n‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ēdinis

ēs              f. noun, ē‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ēī

              f. noun, n‑stem, gen.sg. ‑iōnis

is               noun, i‑stem, gen.sg. ‑is

is               adj., i‑stem, f. ‑is, n. ‑e

or              m. noun, r‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ōris    

tās            f. noun, t‑stem, gen.sg. ‑tātis

‑tūdō         f. noun, n‑stem, gen.sg. ‑tūdinis

tūs            f. noun, t‑stem, gen.sg. ‑tūtis

um            n. noun, o‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ī

us              m. noun, o‑stem, gen.sg. ‑ī

us              adj., o/ā‑stem, f. ‑a, n. ‑um

Some words which are listed as separate lexemes in OLD have been excluded because they belong to categories listed otherwise:

-        n. nouns in ‑um or ‑e derived from attested adjectives or ppp.: to the adjective in ‑us or ‑is, or the ppp. in ‑us

-        adverbs in ‑(i)ter: to the adj. they are based on

-        adverbs in ‑ē: to the adj. in ‑us or ‑is

-        nominal compounds with a noun or an adj. as the first member: to the respective noun or adj.

5.5 Proto‑Italic

If possible, I provide a Proto‑Italic reconstruction of the stem of the Latin entry, and occasionally of other Latin or Italic words which may plausibly go back to Proto‑Italic. See section 1.4 for the phonological system of Proto‑Italic.

5.6 Italic cognates

This section exhaustively lists all Faliscan, Sabellic and Venetic word forms which are or may be cognate with the Latin entry. All Sabellic forms are cited from Untermann 2000; I have usually adopting his rendering of the meaning and his morphological interpretation of the forms. Alternative interpretations of the meaning and etymology of Sabellic words are not usually discussed; instead, the reader is referred to the relevant section in Untermann. The Faliscan forms are cited according to Giacomelli 1963, and the Venetic forms according to Lejeune 1974, with additions as per Marinetti 1999, 2004 (to the exclusion of the Tavola da Este, which requires more detailed linguistic study). I have refrained from citing any Sicel forms, since their interpretation still seems too uncertain to me; the only exception is πιβε ‘drink!’.

5.7 Proto‑Indo‑European

I reconstruct the form of the stem from which the Latin entry can be directly or indirectly derived. In some cases, there is more than one theoretical possibility.

 

5.8 Indo‑European cognates

This section provides the main cognates of the Latin entry in the main languages used for reconstructing Proto‑Indo‑European. Since the details of the formation type often differ from language to language, non‑specialists in Indo‑European reconstruction may want to concentrate mainly on the identity of the root. Cognates from Celtic (Continental Celtic, Irish, Welsh, Cornish, Breton) are adduced first because of their relevance for the reconstruction of a Proto‑Italo‑Celtic stage. Subsequently, I provide the cognates from Anatolian (Hittite, Palaic, Luwian, Lydian, Lycian) because this branch first split off PIE. The remaining branches of IE are adduced in the following order: Indic (Sanskrit) – Iranian (Avestan, Old Persian, etc.) – Greek – Phrygian – Armenian – Albanian – Baltic (Old Prussian, Lithuanian, Latvian) – Slavic – Germanic (Gothic, North Gm., West Gm.) – Tocharian. For the collection and interpretation of the cognate words, I have relied heavily on the work of colleagues in the IEED project: Kloekhorst 2008 for Anatolian, Alexander Lubotsky’s Indo‑Iranian database, Robert Beekes fthc. for Greek, Derksen 2008 for Slavic and Derksen fthc. for Baltic. Obviously, the responsibility for the selection and analysis of the forms as given here is entirely mine.

5.9 Etymology

If the etymology is undisputed and requires no further explanation – that is, if it can be understood applying the usual sound changes from PIE to Latin –, I refrain from a discussion. The etymology should then be clear from the reconstructed Proto‑Italic and Proto‑Indo‑European forms. In the case of an uncertain, disputed or disputable Indo‑European etymology, I discuss some of the options which must be rejected and/or those which seem likely to me. If some of the Latin derivatives are unproductive formations, I shortly discuss their linguistic history.

The main handbooks consulted for reference are IEW (1959), Leumann (1977), Schrijver (1991), Sihler (1995), Meiser (1998, 2003), Untermann (2000), LIV (2001). Other secondary literature is only mentioned where it adds extra arguments or information to the discussion. As stated in 1.3 above, the discussion is not exhaustive. In the case of etymological proposals which seem wholly unconvincing to me, or which have been discussed and refuted by one of the handbooks cited in the entry’s bibliography, I generally refrain from mentioning them. This might have the unfortunate effect that this dictionary will not prevent future scholars from repeating proven errors of the past, but the alternative would have been a dictionary several times as thick, loaded with obsolete theories. It may be remarked that WH, who very often mention and reject former proposals, generally give short qualifications, such as “falsch”, without stating their reasons; this I try to avoid.

If a word has not been given an IE etymology yet, or if the available etymological proposals all seem implausible to me, and I have no better solution to add myself, I usually state “Etymology unknown” or words of similar meaning.

 

5.10 Bibliography

I refer in all cases to page numbers in IEW, WH and EM, and to the PIE entry in LIV. In many instances, I refer to the page in Leumann (1977), Schrijver (1991), Sihler (1995) and Meiser (1998, 2003) on which the entry or its derivatives are discussed. I also provide the reference to the source of the Sabellic (Untermann 2000), Faliscan (Giacomelli 1963) and Venetic (Lejeune 1974) forms. Other secondary literature is only mentioned when it plays a role in the etymological discussion.

 

6. Periodization of Latin

Following Weiss (fthc.a), I adopt the following periodization of Latin:

6th century – 240 BC                                             Very Old Latin (VOLat.)

240 – 50 BC                                                         Old Latin (OLat.)

50 BC – 3rd/4th c.                                                 Classical Latin (CLat.)

3rd/4th c. – 5th/6th c.                                             Late Latin (LLat.)

Although the term ‘Very Old Latin’ has a clumsy ring to it, it avoids the ambiguity which would follow from using ‘Early Latin’ versus ‘Old Latin’, or ‘Archaic Latin’ versus ‘Old Latin’. There is no natural chronological distinction between ‘early’ and ‘old’, while ‘archaic’ is also used for indicating the relative age of linguistic forms with respect to each other.

For the purpose of determining the first attestation of a Latin word, I use the following relative chronology of texts:

I. Very Old Latin

In view of the different provenance of the inscriptions, and the uncertain dates of many of them, the order in which the texts appear is not intended as a relative chronology.

Older inscriptions: Lapis Niger (Forum Inscription), Lapis Satricanus, Duenos inscription, Corcolle Altar, Garigliano Bowl, the Tibur Base, the Madonnetta inscription (all 6th or 5th c.). The Praenestine Fibula is excluded since it is probably a forgery (cf. Baldi 1999: 125).

Several shorter inscriptions from Rome and outside (4th – 3nd c.); Elogium L. Cornelii Cn. f. Scipionis (CIL I2 6+7, ca. 260 BC), Elogium L. Cornelii L. f. Scipionis (CIL I2 8+9, ca. 230 BC).

Texts preserved (usually fragmentarily) in later sources: Lex Regiae, Law of the Twelve Tables, Carmen Saliare, Carmen Arvale.

Single words or phrases preserved by lexicographers: Nonius, Festus, Paulus Diaconus.

II. Old Latin

The order in which the authors appear here is intended as a relative chronology:

Livius Andronicus (±284 – 204)

Naevius (±270 – 201)                       

Plautus (died 184)                              

Ennius (239 – 169)                            

M. Porcius Cato (234 – 149)

Terence (±195 – 159)

Pacuvius (220 – ±130)

Caecilius Statius (died 168)

C. Lucilius (±180 – 102)

Accius (170 – ±85)

Sempronius Gracchus (trib. pl. 123, 122)

Afranius (born ±150)

Cassius Hemina (mid 2nd c.)

Cn. Gellius hist. (late 2nd c.)

Sextus Turpilius (died 103)

Titinius (2nd c.)

L. Pomponius com. (2nd – 1st c.)

Sempronius Asellio (2nd – 1st c.)

Laevius (early 1st c.)

Helvius Mancia (early 1st c.)

Novius (early 1st c.)

Quadrigarius (early 1st c.)

Rhetorica ad Herennium (early 1st c.)

Sisenna (praetor 78)

M. Terentius Varro (116 – 27)

Laberius (±115 – 43)

Lucretius (±94 – 55)

Catullus (± 84 – 54)

inscriptions:

Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus

CIL 364+365 from Falerii

Lex Sacra from Spoletium

other inscriptions from the 2nd and 1st c. BC.

Many Latin words make their first appearance in the comedies of Plautus. Steinbauer (1989: 39‑40) regards the language of Plautus as older than that of Ennius for the following three reasons:

1. The plays of Plautus (maybe an Umbrian) were staged from at least 200 (but maybe earlier) until his death in 184. We know that Ennius (a Messapian) came to Rome in 204, and worked there till his death in 169. Thus, Ennius lived 15 years longer, and did not come to Rome earlier than Plautus.

2. The metre which Ennius uses (dactylic hexameter) excludes about 10% of the Latin vocabulary from occurring in it (according to Skutsch 1985), whereas no such restrictions seem to be imposed by Plautus’ metre.

3. The genre of comedy allows for the use of a much broader spectre of the vocabulary.

III. Classical Latin

Cicero (106 – 43)

Caesar (100 – 44)

Sallust (86 – ±34 BC)

Cornelius Nepos (±99 – 24 BC)

Virgil (70 – 19 BC)

Horace (65 – 8 BC)

Ovid (43 BC – ±17 AD)

L. Annaeus Seneca (±5 BC – 65 AD)

Columella (mid 1st c. AD)

etc.

I place the caesura between OLat. and CLat. before Cicero. This arbitrary division has a practical background: whereas Varro (who died later than Cicero) shows an explicit interest in archaic language, we find that many formations increase greatly in productivity from Cicero onwards, especially u‑stem nouns and nouns in ‑tiō and ‑tās. The inclusion of words attested in but not before Cicero would imply the enumeration of a lot of new, predictable Latin formations which do not add to our knowledge of pre‑Latin stages.

ABBREVIATIONS AND SYMBOLS

A. LANGUAGES, TEXTS AND AUTHORS

Acc.AcciusNon.Nonius Marcellus
Aeol.AeolicNorw.Norwegian
Afran.AfraniusNov.Novius (comm.)
Alb.AlbanianNPhryg.New Phrygian
Andr.Livius AndronicusO.Oscan
Apul.ApuleiusOAlb.Old Albanian
Ar.AristophanesOAv.Old Avestan
Arc.ArcadianOBret.Old Breton
Arm.Classical ArmenianOCo.Old Cornish
Att.AtticOCSOld Church Slavonic
Aug.AugustineOCz.Old Czech
Av.AvestanOEOld English
AVAtharvaveda /  icOFr.Old Frisian
Bac.BactrianOHGOld High German
Bal.BalochiOIc.Old Icelandic
Bel.BelorussianOIr.Old Irish
Boeot.BoeotianOLat.Old Latin
Br.Brāhmaṇa /  icOLFr.Old Low Franconian
BrCl.British CelticOLGOld Low German
Bret.BretonOLith.Old Lithuanian
BSl.Balto SlavicONorw.Old Norwegian
Bulg.BulgarianOPOld Persian
Caecil.Caecilius StatiusOPhryg.Old Phrygian
Caes.CaesarOPo.Old Polish
Cat.CatullusOPr.Old Prussian
Cels.A. Cornelius CelsusORu.Old Russian
Celtib.CeltiberianOSOld Saxon
Cic.CiceroOss.Ossetic
CLat.Classical LatinOSwe.Old Swedish
CLuw.Cuneiform LuwianOv.Ovid
Co.CornishOWOld Welsh
Col.ColumellaPac.Pacuvius
Cret.CretanPael.Paelignian
CSChurch SlavicPal.Palaic
Cz.CzechPAlb.Proto Albanian
Dan.DanishPalU.Palaeo Umbrian
Dor.DoricPamph.Pamphylian
Elog.Scip.Elogia ScipionumPAnat.Proto Anatolian
EMEtymologicum Magnum (after Greek words)Parth.Parthian
EMoBr.Early Modern BretonPaul. ex F.Paulus Diaconus ex Festo
EMoIr.Early Modern IrishPBr.Proto British
Enn.EnniusPCl.Proto Celtic
ep.epicPetr.Petronius
Etr.EtruscanPGm.Proto Germanic
Fal.FaliscanPhryg.Phrygian
Fest.Sextus Pompeius FestusPi.Pindar
Galat.GalatianPIEProto Indo European
Gaul.GaulishPIr.Proto Iranian
Gell.Cn. GelliusPIt.Proto Italic
gloss.in glossesPkt.Prakrit
Gm.GermanicPl.Plautus
Go.GothicPlin.Pliny the Elder Naturalis Historia
Gr.GreekPlut.Plutarchus
Gracch.C. Sempronius GracchusPo.Polish
H.HomerPompon.L. Pomponius
Hdt.HerodotusPresam.Pre Samnite
Hem.Cassius HeminaPrisc.Priscian
Hern.HernicanPRom.Proto Romance
Hit.HittiteProp.Propertius
HLuw.Hieroglyphic LuwianPSab.Proto Sabellic
Hor.HoracePSl.Proto Slavic
Hp.HipponaxPTo.Proto Tocharian
Hsch.HesychiusQuad.Quadrigarius
IEIndo EuropeanQuint.Quintilianus
IIr.Indo IranianRhet.Her.Rhetorica ad Herennium
Ion.IonicRu.Russian
Ir.IrishRuCSRussian Church Slavic
It.ItalicRVRigveda / Rigvedic
Juv.JuvenalSab.Sabellic
Khot.KhotaneseSall.Sallust
Khwar.KhwarezmianSCAsc.Senatus Consultum de Asclepiade (CIL I 588)
Lab.LaberiusSCBac.Senatus Consultum de Bacchanalibus
Lac.LaconianSCr.Serbo Croatian
Laev.LaeviusSeCSSerbian Church Slavic
Larg.Scribonius LargusSen.Seneca
Lat.LatinServ.Servius Maurus Honoratus
Latv.LatvianSis.Sisenna
LCo.Late CornishSkt.Sanskrit
Lesb.LesbianSln.Slovene
Lex Reg.Lex RegiaeSogd.Sogdian
Lex XIILex Duodecim TabularumSPic.South Picene
Lith.LithuanianSuet.Suetonius
LGLow GermanSwe.Swedish
LLat.Late LatinŚBr.Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa
LPBr.Late Proto BritishŚrSū.Śrauta Sūtra
Luc.LucanTer.Terence
Lucil.LuciliusThess.Thessalian
Lucr.LucretiusTitin.Titinius
Luw.LuwianToATocharian A
Lyc.LycianToABTocharian A and B
Lyd.LydianToBTocharian B
Marr.MarrucinianToch.Tocharian
Mars.MarsianTurp.Sextus Turpilius
Mart.MartialU.Umbrian
MBret.Middle BretonUkr.Ukranian
MCo.Middle CornishUlp.Ulpian
MDu.Middle DutchUSorb.Upper Sorbian
MEMiddle EnglishVell.C. Velleius Paterculus
MHGMiddle High GermanVen.Venetic
MIr.Middle IrishVerg.Virgil
MLGMiddle Low GermanVest.Vestinian
MoDu.Modern DutchVitr.Vitruvius
MoEModern EnglishVLat.Vulgar Latin
MoIr.Modern IrishVMax.Valerius Maximus
MoPModern PersianVOLat.Very Old Latin
MPMiddle PersianVol.Volscian
MWMiddle WelshW.Welsh
Myc.MycenaeanWGm.West Germanic
Naev.Gnaius NaeviusX.Xenophon
Nem. Cyn.M. Aurelius Olympius Nemesianus, CynegeticaYAv.Young Avestan
NHGNew High GermanŽem.Žemaitian

B. RECONSTRUCTION, GRAMMAR AND TEXT

abl.ablativeipf.imperfect
acc.accusativeipv.imperative
acc. toaccording toipv.IIfuture imperative
act.activeirr.irregular
ADanno dominilit.literally
adj.adjectiveloc.locative
adv.adverbm.masculine
aor.aoristmed.middle
ath.athematicn.neuter
BCbefore Christneg.negative
c.centurynom.nominative
cf.comparenum.numeral
cj.conjunctionobl.oblique
cogn.cognomenopt.optative
coll.collectivep.page
colloq.colloquialp.c.personal communication
comp.comparativepf.perfect
conj.conjugationpers.personal
cp.compoundpl.plural
cp1first member of a compoundPNpersonal name
cp2second member of a compoundpostpos.postposition
dat.dativeppa.active perfect participle
denom.denominativeppp.passive past particple
desid.desiderativepr.present
dial.(in) dialectspref.prefix
dim.diminutiveprep.preposition
du.dualpret.preterite
dub.dubiousprev.preverb
e.g.for examplepron.pronoun
encl.encliticps.passive
f.feminineptc.participle
fthc.forthcomingptcle.particle
fut.futurered.reduplicated,  tion
fut.IIfuture perfectrel.relative
gen.genitivesb.subjunctive
gent.gentiliciumsg.singular
gdve.gerundivesing.singulative
Hany PIE laryngealsup.superlative
h1/2h1 or h2s.v.sub voce
I, II, III, IV

1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th conjugation

them.thematic
id.idemtr.transitive
impers.impersonalv.verb
ind.indicativevar.variant
indecl.indeclinablevel sim.or similarly
inj.injunctiveviz.namely, to wit
ins.instrumentalvoc.vocative
inscr.inscription(s)1s.first person singular
int.intensive1p.first person plural
interr.interrogative1x, 2x, etc.once, twice, etc.
intr.Intransitive  

C. SYMBOLS

becomes by regular phonological development
reflects by regular phonological development
>> is replaced by way of analogy
<< replaces by way of analogy
see also the entries
(?)meaning uncertain or appurtenance uncertain
*Xa reconstructed item of a proto‑stage
X*

a non‑attested but certain form of an attested language

<X>spelled with the symbol X
/X/the phoneme X
[X]phonetically pronounced as X

X is cp1

˚XX is cp2

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